The Undergraduate Research Journal


The Nile River is the backbone of Egypt. Egypt’s dry climate, lack of alternative water sources, and scarce rainfall and arable land intensify its reliance on the Nile River. In fact, the Nile River provides Egyptians with 97% of the available fresh water. Currently, Egypt is experiencing a rising water deficit due to wasteful water irrigation and consumption, global warming, and rapid population growth. The Egyptian population is increasing at an annual rate of two percent, creating a rising demand on the already dwindling Nile water supply. Another threat to the Egyptian Nile water supply is the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD). The dam is a massive project that is intended to store water and generate electricity for Ethiopia. However, this dam endangers the water supply of downstream countries. Egypt is the most downstream country; hence, it is among the most affected by the impending threats of the dam, as the GERD can potentially curtail the Nile water flow coming to Egypt by 25%. This percentage will not only jeopardize Egypt’s water security, but also the agricultural industry: a major food and employment source as it fosters multiple subsidiary industries. Accordingly, the GERD poses as a direct threat to the wellbeing of Egyptian society. This paper will further analyze the impact of the GERD on the Egyptian water supply and the consequences of its impending decline; with emphasis on the effect on the increasing population, the agricultural industry, and the economy, as well as propose viable solutions.

Document Type

FYRE Place


Rhetoric and Composition Department

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item