A Subversive Imperialist: Reappraising Freya Stark / ﺇﻣﺒﺮﻳﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺑﺜﻮﺭﻳﺔ ﻣﺒﻄﻨﺔ: ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻘﻴﻴﻢ ﻓﺮﻳﺎ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻙ


Malise Ruthven



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Ruthven, Malise; ﺭﺍﺛﭭﻦ, ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺰ

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Research Article

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Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics

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[In reconsidering the work of the writer and traveler Freya Stark, who died in 1993 aged 101, her godson-the author-argues that her human and artistic instincts ran in the opposite direction to the belief in British imperialism she espoused at a formal level. Possessing a literary sensibility informed by Jane Austen and other classical novelists, she maintained a deep-rooted conviction in the natural goodness of the ordinary people whose lives she shared more intimately than other travelers. The fact that her sympathetic human insights were ultimately incompatible with her benign vision of empire does not diminish her achievement. ﻣﻌﻴﺪﺍ ﹰﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﺮﻳّﺎ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻙ (ﻋﺮﹼﺍﺑﺘﻪ)٬ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻮﻓﺎﺓ ﻓﻲ ١٩٩٣ﻋﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻳﻨﺎﻫﺰ ١٠١ ﻋﺎﻣﺎﹰ٬ ﻳﻘﺘﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﺃﻥ ﻓﻄﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻴﺾ ﻣﻦ ﺇﻳﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ ﺑﺎﻹﻣﺒﺮﻳﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ٠ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﻤﺴﻜﺖ ﺳﺘﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﺈﻳﻤﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺳﺦ ﺑﺨﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺷﺎﺭﻛﺘﻬﻢ ﺣﻴﻮﺍﺗﻬﻢ ﺑﺤﻤﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ٬ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻹﻳﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻠﻬﻤﺘﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺟﻴﻦ ﺃﻭﺳﺘﻦ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺍﺋﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﺳﻴﻜﻴﻦ٠ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺾ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﻃﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻺﻣﺒﺮﻳﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻠﻞ٬ ﻓﻲ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ٬ ﻣﻦ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺇﻧﺠﺎﺯﺍﺗﻬﺎ٠]

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