Mapping metabolome changes in Luffa aegyptiaca Mill fruits at different maturation stages via MS-based metabolomics and chemometrics
Academy of Scientific Research and Technology
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Journal of Advanced Research
Introduction: Luffa aegyptiaca Mill, sponge gourd or Egyptian cucumber, is grown worldwide for its edible fruit consumed as a vegetable like cucumber. Unlike young fruit (YF), the fully mature ripened fruit (MF) is strongly fibrous and is used as a cleanser to make scrubbing bath sponges. YF undergoes a complex series of physiological and biochemical changes during fruit ripening. However, the chemical compositional differences between YF and MF in Luffa aegyptiaca have not been distinguished to date. Objectives: Comprehensively compare the metabolites profile of YF and MF to give insight on how maturation stage affects chemical composition. Methods: Mass-based metabolomics comprising GC/MS and UHPLC/MS were adopted in this study targeting its volatile and non-volatile metabolites coupled with chemometrics to rationalize for the differences. Results: A total of 53 volatile metabolites were identified via headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) comprising 66.2% aldehydes/furans, 51.6% alcohols, 38.2% ketones, 15.1% acids and 10.1% aromatics of which aldehydes/ furans were dominant at both fruit stages. Young fruit was in general more erniched in metabolites as revealed from UHPLC/MS and GC/MS analyses. The YF group encompassed higher levels of short chain alcohols (1-octen-3-ol) and aldehydes ((E)-2-hexenal and cucumber aldehyde) in addition to terpenoids (linalool). In contrast, fatty acids (octanoic acid) predominated MF specimens. UHPLC/MS analysis revealed for several oleanene triterpene glycosides as major secondary bioactive compounds, dihydroxy-oxo-oleanenoic acid glycoside found more abundant in YF versus MF as revealed from multivariate data analyses. Conclusions: Our results reveal for the distinct metabolite changes in L. aegyptiaca fruit in its different stages and to rationalize for its different usage.
(2021). Mapping metabolome changes in Luffa aegyptiaca Mill fruits at different maturation stages via MS-based metabolomics and chemometrics. Journal of Advanced Research, 29, 179–189.
Maamoun, Amal A., et al.
"Mapping metabolome changes in Luffa aegyptiaca Mill fruits at different maturation stages via MS-based metabolomics and chemometrics." Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 29, 2021, pp. 179–189.