Dietary Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) enhanced the growth performance, antioxidative capacity, immune response and ameliorated stress-related markers induced by hypoxia stress in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

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Research Article

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Fish and Shellfish Immunology

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Nile tilapia can tolerate a wide range of farming conditions; however, fluctuations in the environmental conditions may impair their health status. The incorporation of medicinal herbs in aquafeed is suggested to overcome stressful conditions. In this study, dietary Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) was evaluated on the growth performance, antioxidative capacity, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia against hypoxia stress. Fish fed five diets incorporated with Guduchi at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 g/kg for 56 days then exposed with hypoxia stress for 72 h. The growth performance, feed intake, and feed efficiency ratio were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by including Guduchi in tilapia diets regardless of the inclusion level. Similarly, the lipase and protease activities were markedly (P < 0.05) increased in tilapia fed dietary Guduchi. The activities of lysozyme and bactericidal activities in serum and mucus, nitro-blue tetrazolium (NBT), and alternative complement activity (ACH50) were markedly (P < 0.05) enhanced in tilapia treated with Guduchi supplements regardless of the dose. Additionally, the activities of liver and intestinal superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were markedly enhanced (P < 0.05) by including Guduchi in tilapia diets compared with the control. Before and after hypoxia stress, tilapia-fed dietary Guduchi had lower glucose and cortisol levels than fish-fed Guduchi-free diets (P < 0.05). In all groups, glucose and cortisol levels were markedly higher after hypoxia compared before hypoxia stress (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary Guduchi can be included at 5.17–5.49 g/kg to enhance the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immune and antioxidative responses, and the resistance of Nile tilapia against hypoxia stress.

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