Radiation sources exist in different kinds of environments where electronic devices often operate. Correct device operation is usually affected negatively by radiation. The radiation resultant effect manifests in several forms depending on the operating environment of the device like total ionizing dose effect (TID), or single event effects (SEEs) such as single event upset (SEU), single event gate rupture (SEGR), and single event latch up (SEL). CMOS circuits and Floating gate MOS circuits suffer from an increase in the delay and the leakage current due to TID effect. This may damage the proper operation of the integrated circuit. Exhaustive testing is needed for devices operating in harsh conditions like space and military applications to ensure correct operations in the worst circumstances. The use of worst case test vectors (WCTVs) for testing is strongly recommended by MIL-STD-883, method 1019, which is the standard describing the procedure for testing electronic devices under radiation. However, the difficulty of generating these test vectors hinders their use in radiation testing. Testing digital circuits in the industry is usually done nowadays using design for testability (DFT) techniques as they are very mature and can be relied on. DFT techniques include, but not limited to, ad-hoc technique, built-in self test (BIST), muxed D scan, clocked scan and enhanced scan. DFT is usually used with automatic test patterns generation (ATPG) software to generate test vectors to test application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), especially with sequential circuits, against faults like stuck at faults and path delay faults. Despite all these recommendations for DFT, radiation testing has not benefited from this reliable technology yet. Also, with the big variation in the DFT techniques, choosing the right technique is the bottleneck to achieve the best results for TID testing. In this thesis, a comprehensive comparison between different DFT techniques for TID testing of flash-based FPGAs is made to help designers choose the best suitable DFT technique depending on their application. The comparison includes muxed D scan technique, clocked scan technique and enhanced scan technique. The comparison is done using ISCAS-89 benchmarks circuits. Points of comparisons include FPGA resources utilization, difficulty of designs bring-up, added delay by DFT logic and robust testable paths in each technique.


Electronics & Communications Engineering Department

Degree Name

MS in Electronics & Communication Engineering

Graduation Date


Submission Date

September 2019

First Advisor

Abou-Auf, Ahmed

Committee Member 1

Ismail, Yehea

Committee Member 2

Wassal, Amr


107 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


The author retains all rights with regard to copyright. The author certifies that written permission from the owner(s) of third-party copyrighted matter included in the thesis, dissertation, paper, or record of study has been obtained. The author further certifies that IRB approval has been obtained for this thesis, or that IRB approval is not necessary for this thesis. Insofar as this thesis, dissertation, paper, or record of study is an educational record as defined in the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 USC 1232g), the author has granted consent to disclosure of it to anyone who requests a copy.

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item