The Construction industry, which can be in the form of residential building, commercial, public and utility buildings, or civil engineering building, has a huge influence on any nation's economy. Its influence can be either manifested in its contribution to the economy or the service it provides to the community. In order to build any infrastructure project with a balanced cost, time, and quality, project managers search for alternatives that can satisfy these contradicting attributes. The traditional time-cost trade-off was enhanced with the three-dimensional time-cost- quality optimization in the last two decades. The optimization is aimed to minimize the time and cost as much as possible while increasing the quality of the infrastructure to be built. The issue of financing in developing countries has been a bottle neck of success in constructing infrastructure like highway. Many researchers have concluded in their studies the causes of time and cost overrun in high-way construction were, contractors' financial problems, Inflation, progress payments delay by owner, political issues, variations, lack of managemental skills, cost fluctuation of materials during construction, environmental issues, Shortage in equipment, Inadequate contractor experience etc. The number of studies in the literature that deals with financial optimization and cash-flow analysis to address the problem of financing and inflation are getting more attention. The cash-flow analysis and maximum overdraft to be paid give a good indication to the main participants about the trends toward cost and time overrun. They can also help in making a proper decision right at the beginning. The purpose of this study is to deal with the optimization of time and profit of highway constructions taking in to consideration the amount of available credit and future value of the cost of each activity and cash-flow analysis in a comprehensive model. This type of analysis gives the contractor how its profit will be influenced with his allowable credits and the time associated with it. Besides, the model also generates a line of balance scheduling for the project as highways are among the repetitive projects. The cash-flow analysis gives extra information on the overdraft so that it can be optimized to find good combination of execution of the activities which will minimize the overdraft, interest paid to banks and most importantly maximize the profit to be gained by the project using GA approach. This type of analysis also gives alternatives for contractors how much profit would they like to gain by providing different amount of credits. At first the profit and time are optimized individually to get the maximum profit and minimum time for completing the project. Then the multi-objective optimization using goal programing takes place which tries to minimize the deviation from the optimum individual values by assigning importance weight to the individual objectives to find the near optimal solution. The model is tested for different allowable credits and its sensitivity analysis outcomes are plotted to see the relationship between the allowable credits and the profit. To validate the efficiency of the developed model, it is applied to a project from the literature that addresses scheduling and cost optimization of repetitive projects. It is found that the outcome of the model that maximizes the profit and minimizing the time outlooks the results of the literature with 4.65% and 0.38% improvement in duration and cost of the project respectively.


Construction Engineering Department

Degree Name

MS in Construction Engineering

Graduation Date


Submission Date

May 2019

First Advisor

Ezeldin, Dr. Samer

Committee Member 1

Nassar, Dr. Khaled

Committee Member 2

El Saeed, Dr. Gamal



Document Type

Master's Thesis


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Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item


First and for most my praise goes to God for letting me to have this study opportunity and granted me the required health, courage, stability, and wisdom. Without his blessing and protection, the opportunity of getting acquainted with all my professors and classmates would never happen. Huge sincere gratitude goes to my advisor Dr. A. Samer Ezeldin, Chair of the Construction Engineering department in the American University in Cairo for his fatherly guidance and patience. The encouragement that he grated me was the driving force to strive, accompanied with selfless continuous support, patience, motivation, and endless companionship. I would like to thank Dr. Khaled Nassar, Prof. in Construction Engineering Department in the American University in Cairo for the chance he gave me to work as a research assistant with him that opened me a door to his generous support and guidance to my thesis. I would also like to extend my gratitude to Dr. Yasmeen Sharif for her encouragements and advising me on my work. My silence goes to my parents and siblings where thanking is not going to be enough for their support for the whole of my life. Their motivation for my master’s studies and for my thesis was beyond measure for me. My profound appreciation and thank go to my friend Mahmoud Amin who showed me endless love since I put my feet in the American University in Cairo. He was a friend, brother who really have been take care of me for my time in the American University in Cairo. He was the biggest support for the whole courses and doing projects with him. A heartfelt gratitude also goes to Athnasious Ghaly and Ahmed Shiha who were on my side when I ever need them. They showed me a hand full support in my whole courses and thesis. I am indebted to Sabela Aregay a friend of mine for her support on checking my written thesis. I also thank for the staff of the construction engineering department, who showed me the love and cooperation in my stay at the American University in Cairo without fail. My thank goes to Seham Abdelwahib secretary of the construction Engineering department, Senior Laila Shamil, Executive Assistant to Chair, and Ahmed Gaber, computer lab supervisor, for their support.