Hossam Ebid


One of the results of globalization is that individuals are now more likely using multiple codes to communicate, often switching between them. The purpose of this study is to examine the attitude toward codeswitching (CS) in Egypt as there has limited research conducted in the region, especially codeswitching between the Egyptian colloquial and English. Attitude toward CS was determined using a convenience sample of 40 participants in an Egyptian university community. Half of the participants were Egyptians who had attended international schools prior to university and the other half were international students studying Arabic. Questionnaires, verbal guise tests and follow-up interviews were conducted to assess the listener’s attitude toward the speaker. Also examined was if the gender of the speaker affected the attitude of the listener. Results showed that both groups of participants viewed code-switching favorably although they both felt it compromised Arabic. The male who did not code-switch in the verbal guise test was rated the most negatively by both groups. The results did not support the expectations from previous research that code switching would be viewed more negatively. This study provides additional insights about the attitude toward code-switching and supports the suggestion that a code-switched variety of Arabic and English is becoming a widely-accepted variety which thus could be added to Dr. Badawi’s (1973) model for describing the intermediate varieties between the high and low varieties of Arabic. Implications for teaching are discussed.


Applied Linguistics Department

Degree Name

MA in Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language

Graduation Date


Submission Date

September 2017

First Advisor

Taha, Zeinab

Committee Member 1

Aboelseoud, Dalal

Committee Member 2

Hassan, Mona Kamel


70 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


The author retains all rights with regard to copyright. The author certifies that written permission from the owner(s) of third-party copyrighted matter included in the thesis, dissertation, paper, or record of study has been obtained. The author further certifies that IRB approval has been obtained for this thesis, or that IRB approval is not necessary for this thesis. Insofar as this thesis, dissertation, paper, or record of study is an educational record as defined in the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 USC 1232g), the author has granted consent to disclosure of it to anyone who requests a copy.

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Approval has been obtained for this item


The completion of this work would not have been possible without the assistance and support of the following individuals from my thesis committee, professors, the wider AUC community and my friends and colleagues. I am deeply indebted to all of them. To my thesis committee, I would first like to express my gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Zeinab Taha, for her willingness to continually meet with me throughout the process and help in connecting me with faculty teaching Arabic classes so that I could have access to international students as well as some classes with Egyptian students. Her sociolinguistic course inspired the topic my thesis. A special thanks also goes to my first reader, Dr. Dalal Aboelseoud, whose constant detailed feedback guided me throughout my journey. I consider her teaching materials exemplary. Additional thanks is for to my second reader, Dr. Mona Kamel, who was willing to participate in my final defense committee and provided me with additional feedback. I would also like to acknowledge the professors below whose expertise I greatly benefitted from. Deepest gratitude is extended to Dr. Ashraf Abdou. I consider him my role model as he provided the foundation of Arabic Language and the meaning of being an effective teacher. My sincerest thanks is allotted to Dr. Raghda El Essawi, the director of MATAFL Program who recommended me for an internship to Leiden University. I am very grateful that she believed in me which gave me the encouragement to go through the application process. Also, I am appreciative of the input I received in her classes. I would also like to thank Dr. Atta Gebril from whom I learned various research methodologies and received resources that helped to complete my thesis along with IRB feedback. Special gratitude goes to Dr. Agameya who showed me how to effectively integrate the latest technology in teaching. Furthermore, I am grateful to the faculty who opened their classes to me so that I may gather more participants for my study. Also, much appreciation is extended to the Social Research Center staff at AUC who assisted me in running the statistical tests and analyzing the results. Your help was truly invaluable. Also, many thanks go to Sara Tarek who communicated announcements of the required administrative work and deadlines as well as provided encouragement which kept me motivated. Finally, thanks to all my colleagues especially Shereen Shendy, Mohamed Bayoumi, Mohamed Hassan, Hasnaa Essam, and Mukhtar Abdel Hafiz for opening their classes and giving me access to their students along with their continued friendship.