Asmaa Mohamed


This thesis examines the causal factors behind the persistence of opposition fragmentation after the toppling of Mubarak and the collapse of the regime’s throbbing heart, the security apparatus. This is due to the importance of opposition unification not only in the toppling of autocrats but also in the success of any transition towards democracy. More urgency is brought to the puzzle due to the specific nature of the transitional period that was more in favor of different political forces compared to previous periods. This argues that three causal factors were behind the re-fragmentation of the opposition post-Mubarak: the continuation of regime manipulation by the SCAF, the failure of cooperation between youth movements and political parties, and the polarization between Islamists and Secularists.


Political Science Department

Degree Name

MA in Political Science

Graduation Date


Submission Date

February 2017

First Advisor

Koehler, Kevin

Committee Member 1

Sika, Nadine

Committee Member 2

Schlumberger, Oliver


169 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


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Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item


My gratitude goes first to my family without whom, I would not be in such position or reached this stage in my life. Thanks to my mother who taught me how to be an independent and responsible woman who always seek to do the best she can. Thanks to my father who has been a role model for a hard-worker, dedicated and cooperative professor to his students and who always encouraged me to work and improve myself. Thanks as well to my teachers at school and my professors at university whether in the bachelor degree or the master’s degree who contributed to my personality and my knowledge by their continuous help and advice. However, I owe a special debt of gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Kevin Koehler who was a role model for a dedicated and cooperative professor to his students. Thanks for your patience throughout the way and for your continuous support and guidance which added a lot to my mentality and research capabilities. I would also like to give special thanks to Dr. Oliver Schlumberger and Dr. Nadine Sika for accepting to be my readers and for their helpful comments on the thesis; to Dr. Holger Albrecht for guiding me to find the theme of the thesis, for his comments on earlier drafts and for everything I learnt from him and widened my knowledge; and to Dr. Ahmed Abd Rabou for his continuous support and guidance and for being a model to the researcher who stick to the ethics of research away from any personal views or affiliations. Lastly, thanks to my sisters and my friends who supported me throughout the way and who believed in me whenever I doubt it.