Amira Hussein


Community based education has been used in different developing countries in the context of the Education for All (EFA) commitments as a mechanism to increase access and enrollment for basic education in remote and rural areas. It has been introduced to Egypt in 1992 through a partnership between MOE, INGOs, such as UNICEF, USAID, CARE, and local communities. This study examines the current prevailing perception about the community education model as being a successful alternative for public primary education in Egypt in marginalized areas and for vulnerable and marginalized groups mainly girls. It argues that in spite of achieving satisfactory results in the beginning, the model failed to be sustainable and to achieve its targeted results on both the short and long term. On the basis of the assessment of the model in two villages in Upper Egypt, Hoore in Minya and Talt in Benisuif, it can be claimed that there are a number of reasons behind the unsatisfactory results of community education in the last 10 years. These reasons include three main aspects: first, the lack of a comprehensive vision at MOE level, including the scattered policies and regulations governing the model; second, the distorted methodologies of implementation applied by different INGOs and local NGOs; and third, the weak role of the community in managing the schools. As a prerequisite for success, MOE should have an accurate mapping of the educational needs including the targeted areas and number of dropouts in each governorate. This information should be the guide for NGOs working on community education to avoid duplication and competition. Policies should be revised, unified, and applied efficiently on all implementing bodies with no exceptions. Community Education facilitators should be well trained and well paid. Supervision and assessment mechanisms should be in place and curriculums should be revised to ensure the core of the model which its flexibility and ability to address the needs of different local groups. Finally, the important role of local communities should be reclaimed and promoted.


Political Science Department

Degree Name

MA in Political Science

Graduation Date


Submission Date

May 2016

First Advisor

El Nur, Ibrahim

Committee Member 1

Sika, Nadine

Committee Member 2

Sunday, James


109 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


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Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Approval has been obtained for this item


I wish to thank Professor Ibrahim El Nur, my thesis supervisor for his support and understanding. I would also like to thank my dear colleagues Yousra Hamroush, Hatem Zayed, Mona Soliman, and Michael Fam who took some of their time to read and comment on my drafts and to Mona Kotb and Elham Zakaria for their support in the field visits to Talt and Hoore villages. Finally, I am very grateful to my friend and mentor Bassem Hassan for his sincere support and advice.