Leek extract (LEK) has broad therapeutic activity. However, plant extract use has many drawbacks, which could be resolved using nanocarriers. The purpose of this research work was to prepare chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) encapsulating LEK and investigate their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was used to determine the LEK components. The CS-LEK NPs were produced by tripolyphosphate (TPP) crosslinking with chitosan (CS) the ionic gelation methodology. The particle size was 331 nm, zeta potential (ZP) was 28.9 mv, polydispersity index (PDI) was 0.4, encapsulation efficiency (EE) was 65.6%, and loading capacity (LC) was 28.8 % of the optimum CS-LEK NPs with chitosan: LEK (1:1w/w). The TEM showed that the CS-LEK NPs had optimum dispersion with a spherical shape. The FTIR spectrum showed that the LEK was encapsulated in CS NPs. The release profile of LEK from CS-LEK NPs was performed for 72 hr.. The Folin–Ciocalteu method of the CS-LE NPs demonstrated higher total phenolic content (TPC) than the LEK and CS NPs. Also, the results of antioxidant activity of encapsulated NPs had the highest activity. Antibacterial tests for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were tested for CS NPs, CS-LEK NPs, and LEK, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were identified. For the anticancer activity of CS NPs, CS-LEK NPs, and LEK, the MTT assay was performed for three cancerous cell lines, breast cancer (MCF-7), liver cancer (HepG-2), and colorectal cancer (CACO2). Thus, the CS-LEK NPs can protect and control the delivery of LEK to overcome cancer and microbial infection. The aforementioned results demonstrated the benefits of employing CS NPs as a nanocarrier for LEK, offering a viable method for enhancing botanical-based medicines.


School of Sciences and Engineering


Nanotechnology Program

Degree Name

MS in Nanotechnology

Graduation Date

Fall 2-8-2023

Submission Date


First Advisor

Wael Mamdouh

Committee Member 1

Hatem Tallima

Committee Member 2

Rihab Osman

Committee Member 3

Ehab EL Sawy


101 p

Document Type

Master's Thesis

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item

Available for download on Saturday, July 12, 2025