Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is associated with the proinflammatory phenotype of microglia and has been shown to act in concert with Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). . GSK3 is also a suppressor of Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the principal regulator of redox homeostasis. Agreeing with the oxidative paradigm of aging, Nrf2 is often deregulated in parainflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed to explore a multimodal disease-modifying utility of GSK3 inhibition, beyond neuronal proteopathologies, Furthermore, we aimed to underscore the difference in therapeutic value between the two GSK3 paralogs by isoform-selective chemical inhibition.
The anti-inflammatory effects of paralog-selective GSK3 inhibitors were evaluated as a function of the reductive capacity of each to mitigate LPS-induced activation of SIM-A9 microglia. The Griess method was employed to detect the nitrate-lowering capacity of selective GSK3 inhibition. Real-time PCR was used to assess post-treatment expression levels of pro-inflammatory markers and antioxidant genes; pro-inflammatory cytokines were assayed by ELISA. Nuclear lysates of treated cells were examined for Nrf2 and NF-κB accumulation by immunoblotting. Finally, to infer whether the counter-inflammatory activity of GSK3 inhibition was Nrf2-dependent, DsiRNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 was attempted.
Results from our experiments reveal a superior anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative efficacy for GSK3β-selective inhibition, compared to GSK3α-selective and non-selective pan-inhibition; hence use of selective GSK3β inhibitors is likely to be more propitious than non-selective dual inhibitors administered at comparable doses. Moreover, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of GSK3 inhibition is not Nrf2 dependent.
School of Sciences and Engineering
MS in Biotechnology
Hassan A. N. El-Fawal
Committee Member 1
Committee Member 2
Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval
Not necessary for this item
Yousef, M. H.
(2022).Selective GSK3β inhibition mediates an Nrf2-independent anti-inflammatory microglial response [Master's Thesis, the American University in Cairo]. AUC Knowledge Fountain.
Yousef, Mohamed H.. Selective GSK3β inhibition mediates an Nrf2-independent anti-inflammatory microglial response. 2022. American University in Cairo, Master's Thesis. AUC Knowledge Fountain.
Available for download on Thursday, July 28, 2022
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