Hashem Rizk


As the agriculture industry grows, many attempts have been made to ensure high quality of produce. Diseases and defects found in plants and crops, affect the agriculture industry greatly. Hence, many techniques and technologies have been developed to help solving or reducing the impact of plant diseases. Imagining analysis tools, and gas sensors are becoming more frequently integrated into smart systems for plant disease detection. Many disease detection systems incorporate imaging analysis tools and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) profiling techniques to detect early symptoms of diseases and defects of plants, fruits and vegetative produce. These disease detection techniques can be further categorized into two main groups; preharvest disease detection and postharvest disease detection techniques. This thesis aims to introduce the available disease detection techniques and to compare it with the latest innovative smart systems that feature visible imaging, hyperspectral imaging, and VOC profiling. In addition, this thesis incorporates the use of image analysis tools and k-means segmentation to implement a preharvest Offline and Online disease detection system. The Offline system to be used by pathologists and agriculturists to measure plant leaf disease severity levels. K-means segmentation and triangle thresholding techniques are used together to achieve good background segmentation of leaf images. Moreover, a Mamdani-Type Fuzzy Logic classification technique is used to accurately categorize leaf disease severity level. Leaf images taken from a real field with varying resolutions were tested using the implemented system to observe its effect on disease grade classification. Background segmentation using k-means clustering and triangle thresholding proved to be effective, even in non-uniform lighting conditions. Integration of a Fuzzy Logic system for leaf disease severity level classification yielded in classification accuracies of 98%. Furthermore, a robot is designed and implemented as a robotized Online system to provide field based analysis of plant health using visible and near infrared spectroscopy. Fusion of visible and near infrared images are used to calculate the Normalized Deference Vegetative Index (NDVI) to measure and monitor plant health. The robot is designed to have the functionality of moving across a specified path within an agriculture field and provide health information of leaves as well as position data. The system was tested in a tomato greenhouse under real field conditions. The developed system proved effective in accurately classifying plant health into one of 3 classes; underdeveloped, unhealthy, and healthy with an accuracy of 83%. A map with plant health and locations is produced for farmers and agriculturists to monitor the plant health across different areas. This system has the capability of providing early vital health analysis of plants for immediate action and possible selective pesticide spraying.


Mechanical Engineering Department

Degree Name

MS in Mechanical Engineering

Graduation Date


Submission Date

January 2018

First Advisor

Habib, Maki

Committee Member 1

El Khodary, Khalil

Committee Member 2

Arafa, Mustafa


163 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


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Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item