Micro-organisms causing diseases have been quickly increasing and spreading vastly in their ability to gain resistance against current antibiotics in the market. This results in an enormous mortality rate. Fortunately, Scientists introduced nanotechnology that can further enhance properties of materials in the nanoscale. This allowed further openings to upgrade natural-based products to become more effective and safer than current synthetic antibiotics. In this study, biodegradable polymer nanocomposite made up of Poly Vinyl alcohol (PVA) with Chitosan (CS) was electro-spun using the electro-spinner embedded with Chicory root herbal extract that can potentially be used for targeting Gastro Intestinal Tract (GIT) diseases. This study is divided into 3 phases. Phase I included refining and optimising the extract using 2 different solvents (Distilled Water and Ethanol 70%) and 2 drying methods (Sun and Freeze Drying). Phase II optimised the parameters of the electro-spinner to produce smooth PVA/CS Nanofibers (NFs) using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Phase III optimised the concentration of PVA/CS/Ex. NFs using the Fourier Transform-Infra Red spectroscopy, Ultra Violet-Visible Light spectrophotometer to indicate the Total Phenolic Contents, Entrapment Efficiency (EE), Loading Capacity (LC), release kinetics, antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity. Results of phase I have shown, that the freeze dried ethanolic extract had the highest yield % at 24.7% with total phenolic contents (TPCs) of 4mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/1g, 80% antioxidant activity at 25 mg with an IC50 of 4.15 mg/ml as well as an Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of 100 mg with Staphylococcus Aureus and 25 mg with Escherichia Coli. While results of phase III indicated that PVA/CS/Ex 0.5% NFs was the optimum system, which had an IC50 of 33.32 mg/mL, EE 64.89%, LC of 4.41% obeying Korsmeyer Peppas release model for 48 h showing Quasi Fickian behaviour. PVA/CS/Ex 0.5% NFs had an MBC of 2 mg in both strains, Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia coli proving to be a potent antibacterial material compared to Vancomycin and Ceftriaxone with a balanced antioxidant activity.


School of Sciences and Engineering


Nanotechnology Program

Degree Name

MS in Nanotechnology

Graduation Date


Submission Date

July 2019

First Advisor

Mamdouh, Wael

Committee Member 1

Tallima, Hatem

Committee Member 2

AlGhobashy, Medhat


149 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


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Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item


First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Wael Mamdouh, for giving me the opportunity to work under his supervision and also for his valuable guidance and continuous support and encouragement throughout this research work. He provided me with unlimited support and gave me his precious time and advice whenever I needed it. I am also thankful to all my professors at AUC chemistry department whom I have learnt a lot from throughout the course of my studies including and with no particular order Dr. Hassan El-Fawal, Dr. Adham Ramadan, Dr. Nageh Allam, Dr. Hanadi Salem, Dr. Mohab Anis, Dr. Mayyada El-Sayed, and Dr. Tamer Shoeib. I also feel grateful to every one of my colleagues in my research group for their support, help and the time I spent with them, Amro Shetta for helping me in the IC50, release and release kinetics statistical analysis, James Kegere for helping in all the antibacterial tests and SEM imaging, Mohga Essam, Jailan Essam, Khadiga Sadek, Yasmine El-Kashef, Fatma El-Shishiny, Nouran Sharaf, Omar Zidan and Sara Omar for supporting and aiding sincerely and encouraging me as well as Wafaa Soliman, Wessam delann, Sherine Saad, Hend Amr, Esraa Taha, Sherif Galal, Olivia Adly, Haidy Yehia, and Maryam Madi for playing an important role of being in this big team. Special thanks to the researchers and colleagues here at AUC who participated in teaching me some research skills and provided me with continuous guidance during my work; for their care and guidance during my research work, Ahmed Nour and Mohamed Beltagy for helping me in the SEM imaging, Mr. Mahmoud AbdelMoez for the UV and Ahmed Omaia for the FTIR experiments. Sincere and special thanks to the American University in Cairo for funding and covering all my research expenses through their "research support grant" reward. I would like also to extend my deep and sincere thanks to my parents (Mona Mohamed Aly and Emadelddin A.H. Mohamed) without their continuous care and support in my life I couldn’t have achieved this study. I thank Allah for having such caring parents who are the beam of my passion to science since I was young. I will never forget their guidance and valuable discussions concerning my research especially my kind patient and generous mother for her prayers have been always with me and always being with me to face the difficulties through this study and my father for his continual support despite his travel. He has been a great role model for me and he will always be my hero. Finally, I would like to express my endless thanks to my friends at AUC George Saad, Mohamed Hesham, Alaa Ahmed, Marwan Rezk, Enas Ali, Sherine Shendy, Noha Enab, Hussein Shash, Ahmed El Yamany, Sherine Essam, Aly Benhawy, Bassant, Rasha Essam and Omar Hamed. I would also like to thank my dear brothers (Mohamed Emadelddin, who has passed away last year with deep sorrow and Abd El-Rahman Emadelddin) for their love, care and encouragement and for making me stronger. I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to my close friends, Sara Gad, Alaa Youssef, Reem Badr, Mohamed Aly, Moamen Soliman, Mohamed Essam, Ahmed El-Badawy and Hala Helal. Special Thanks! To my Lovely cat (Toffee) that made me laugh at my most sad moments. I hope I did not forget anyone but if I did, then sorry and thank you. Last, but by no means least, I thank Allah for all his blessings and graces and for making this possible.