The Egyptian legal structure has long discriminated against women. Taking nationality law as an example, it is obvious that all consecutive nationality laws have ignored women’s right concerning passing on and acquiring nationality. Even after its amendment in 2004, major gender discrimination still exists. This is caused by the fact that the nationality law is only a part of the legal system. Consequently, its essence will not deviate from the patriarchal composition of the overall nature of the legal system. This paper argues that the existing forms of discrimination in the nationality law correlate with the broader legal environment. Hence, using law as a tool for social reform in the nationality law only masks the deeper problem. This is what happened when the legislators intervened in 2004 to achieve gender equality in the nationality law. Even the use of strategic litigation has failed on its own to alter the gender discrimination existing in the nationality law. Though in some cases the court has been successful in bringing back some rights for women, patriarchy cannot be altered through judgments.


School of Global Affairs and Public Policy


Law Department

Degree Name

LLM in International and Comparative Law

Graduation Date

Summer 6-15-2021

Submission Date


First Advisor

Hani Sayed

Committee Member 1

Thomas Skouteris

Committee Member 2

Jason Beckett


62 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item