Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a desired educational outcome. Schools invest substantially in technological hardware and software as well as teacher training to encourage ICT integration. However, the results often do not match the investment. The current case study examined the factors that affect elementary teachers’ decision, in an Egyptian international school, to integrate ICT in education with the aim of using the results to inform future ICT related decisions, policies and practices at this particular school. Using a modified form of participatory evaluation (Cousins & Whitmore, 1998; Zukoski & Luluquisen, 2002) and Wagner’s and Kegan’s 4 C’s model(Wagner et al., 2010), the researcher used quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the conditions, context, competencies, and culture that impact ICT integration at the individual and organizational levels. An online survey was administered to all elementary teachers at school X to examine the current status of the school in terms of the 4Cs. This was followed by a focus group for which low-ICT and high-ICT integration teachers were selected to discuss 1) the current state of the school for ICT integration in terms of the 4Cs; 2) the desired state of the school; and 3) recommendations that would enable the school to bridge the gap between both states. It was expected that the participatory nature of the research would enhance teachers’ ownership of the ICT integration process and outcome. One of the main conclusions in this study is that almost all elementary teachers in school X believe in the importance of ICT integration in the teaching and learning process. Deficiencies in their ICT integration trends are not due to teachers’ perception, rather they are caused by one or more of the factors identified in the four domains, culture, conditions, competencies, and culture such as lack of adequate instructional/pedagogical support or the low quality of some of the professional development sessions that teachers attend. The outcome of this research was a set of recommendations for a realistic, clear, and achievable action plan to enhance the effectiveness of ICT integration in school X. Factors identified to affect elementary teachers’ decision to integrate ICT in education included but were not limited to: training in ICT integration, technical support, pedagogical support, access to technology resources, teachers’ competence in using multiple ICT tools and skills.


International & Comparative Education Department

Degree Name

MA in International & Comparative Education

Graduation Date

Spring 6-1-2013

Submission Date

January 2016

First Advisor

Osman, Gihan

Second Advisor


Third Advisor


Committee Member 1

Purinton, Ted

Committee Member 2

Norman, Peggy

Committee Member 3



125 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


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