This thesis reports, for the first time, on a novel design and architecture for realizing inertial grade gyroscope based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The proposed device is suitable for high-precision Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). The new design has been investigated analytically and numerically by means of Finite Element Modeling (FEM) of the shapes, resonance frequencies and decoupling of the natural drive and sense modes of the various implementations. Also, famous phenomena known as spring softening and spring hardening are studied. Their effect on the gyroscope operation is modeled numerically in Matlab/Simulink platform. This latter model is used to predict the drive/sense mode matching capability of the proposed designs. Based on the comparison with the best recently reported performance towards inertial grade operation, it is expected that the novel architecture further lowers the dominant Brownian (thermo-mechanical) noise level by more than an order of magnitude (down to 0.08Âº/hr). Moreover, the gyroscope's figure of merit, such as output sensitivity (150 mV/Âº/s), is expected to be improved by more than two orders of magnitude. This necessarily results in a signal to noise ratio (SNR) which is up to three orders of magnitude higher (up to 1,900mV/ Âº/hr). Furthermore, the novel concept introduced in this work for building MEMS gyroscopes allows reducing the sense parasitic capacitance by up to an order of magnitude. This in turn reduces the drive mode coupling or quadrature errors in the sensor's output signal. The new approach employs Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrates that allows the realization of large mass (>1.6mg), large sense capacitance (>2.2pF), high quality factors (>21,000), large drive amplitude (~2-4 µm) and low resonance frequency (~3-4 KHz) as well as the consequently suppressed noise floor and reduced support losses for high-performance vacuum operation. Several challenges were encountered during fabrication that required developing high aspect ratio (up to 1:20) etching process for deep trenches (up to 500 Ãƒâ€šÃ‚Âµm). Frequency Response measurement platform was built for devices characterization. The measurements were performed at atmospheric pressures causing huge drop of the devices performance. Therefore, various MEMS gyroscope packaging technologies are studied. Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) is selected to encapsulate the fabricated devices under vacuum by utilizing wafer bonding. Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology was developed (as connections) to transfer the electrical signals (of the fabricated devices) outside the cap wafers.
MS in Nanotechnology
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(2013).High performance 3-folded symmetric decoupled MEMS gyroscopes [Master’s thesis, the American University in Cairo]. AUC Knowledge Fountain.
Tawfik, Hani Hisham. High performance 3-folded symmetric decoupled MEMS gyroscopes. 2013. American University in Cairo, Master's thesis. AUC Knowledge Fountain.