An innovative cleaner production technique that adopts open-recycling system of the grinding and polishing sludge of lead crystal glass was applied in this study. Foam glass with good properties that can be used in the thermal insulation applications was produced from the grinding and polishing sludge. The leaching test of the sludge showed that it is a hazardous waste because its leachate has a lead concentration of 7.5 mg/l, while the leachate of the produced foam glass was proved to have a negligible lead concentration of less than 0.02 mg/l. The effect of the heating method, sintering temperature, holding time and additives of Silicon Carbide SiC and granite powder on the properties of the foam glass was investigated. The investigated properties are foam bulk density, porosity percentage, compressive strength and thermal conductivity. Sintering the samples by direct insertion to the oven resulted in lower compressive strength and lower density compared to the low heating rate of around 1.5 oC/min adopted in this study. Sintering temperature of 750 oC at a holding time of 30 minutes produced foam glass with bulk density of 0.485 g/cm3, porosity of 84.6%, compressive strength of 2.21 MPa and thermal conductivity of 0.051 W/m. K. These properties are comparable to those of commercial foam glass. Lower temperatures resulted in foam glass with significantly higher bulk density, while higher temperatures led to deterioration in the foam glass properties due to the coalescence phenomenon. The addition of SiC leads to increase foam glass porosity and reduce its bulk density, compressive strength and thermal conductivity. Adding SiC from 2 to 8 wt.% produced a foam glass with porosity 89.4-91.9%, bulk density 0.256-0.334 g/cm3, compressive strength 0.89-1.44 MPa and thermal conductivity 0.039-0.058 W/m.K. In contrast, the addition of granite powder reduces the foam glass porosity and increases its bulk density, compressive strength and thermal conductivity. Adding granite powder from 2 to 8 wt.% produced a foam glass with porosity 76.1-83.2%, bulk density 0.529-0.747 g/cm3, compressive strength 2.43-5.09 MPa, thermal conductivity 0.074-0.135 W/m. K. It can be concluded that the foam glass prepared by adding SiC is suitable to the applications that need very low thermal conductivity, while the foam glass prepared by adding granite powder is suitable to the applications where compressive strength is of more importance.


Mechanical Engineering Department

Degree Name

MS in Mechanical Engineering

Graduation Date


Submission Date

January 2014

First Advisor

El-Haggar, Salah

Committee Member 1

Esawi, Amal

Committee Member 2

El-Sheltawi, Shakiz


126 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis

Library of Congress Subject Heading 1


Library of Congress Subject Heading 2

Glass manufacture.


The author retains all rights with regard to copyright. The author certifies that written permission from the owner(s) of third-party copyrighted matter included in the thesis, dissertation, paper, or record of study has been obtained. The author further certifies that IRB approval has been obtained for this thesis, or that IRB approval is not necessary for this thesis. Insofar as this thesis, dissertation, paper, or record of study is an educational record as defined in the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 USC 1232g), the author has granted consent to disclosure of it to anyone who requests a copy.

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item


I would like to dedicate this work to my parents whom without their encouragement this work would not have been possible. I would like to profoundly thank Dr. Salah El-Haggar for his continuous guidance and support throughout the thesis work. I would like to thank Mr. Mohamed Saeed (Waste Magement Lab), Mr. Zakaria Yehia (Materials Testing Lab) and Mr. Ahmed Saad (Environmental Lab). I am also thankful to ASFOUR Crystal team for their cooperation and support for this research.