In this research work, five different preprocessing techniques were experimented with two different classifiers to find the best match for preprocessor + classifier combination to built an illumination tolerant face recognition system. Hence, a face recognition system is proposed based on illumination normalization techniques and linear subspace model using two distance metrics on three challenging, yet interesting databases. The databases are CAS PEAL database, the Extended Yale B database, and the AT&T database. The research takes the form of experimentation and analysis in which five illumination normalization techniques were compared and analyzed using two different distance metrics. The performances and execution times of the various techniques were recorded and measured for accuracy and efficiency. The illumination normalization techniques were Gamma Intensity Correction (GIC), discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Histogram Remapping using Normal distribution (HRN), Histogram Remapping using Log-normal distribution (HRL), and Anisotropic Smoothing technique (AS). The linear subspace models utilized were principal component analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The two distance metrics were Euclidean and Cosine distance. The result showed that for databases with both illumination (shadows), and lighting (over-exposure) variations like the CAS PEAL database the Histogram remapping technique with normal distribution produced excellent result when the cosine distance is used as the classifier. The result indicated 65% recognition rate in 15.8 ms/img. Alternatively for databases consisting of pure illumination variation, like the extended Yale B database, the Gamma Intensity Correction (GIC) merged with the Euclidean distance metric gave the most accurate result with 95.4% recognition accuracy in 1ms/img. It was further gathered from the set of experiments that the cosine distance produces more accurate result compared to the Euclidean distance metric. However the Euclidean distance is faster than the cosine distance in all the experiments conducted.


Computer Science & Engineering Department

Degree Name

MS in Computer Science

Graduation Date


Submission Date

October 2013

First Advisor

Moustafa, Dr. Mohamed N.

Committee Member 1

Goneid, Dr.Amr

Committee Member 2

Balasa, Dr.Florin


94 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis

Library of Congress Subject Heading 1

Face perception.

Library of Congress Subject Heading 2

Principal components alysis.


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Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item


Umar Musa Yaradua University- Katsi, Nigeria