PEGylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Encapsulating Ascorbic Acid and Oxaliplatin Exhibit Dramatic Apoptotic Effects against Breast Cancer Cells
This study aims to design a pH-responsive dual-loaded nanosystem based on PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles loaded with ascorbic acid (AA) and oxaliplatin (OX) for the effective treatment of breast cancer. In this regard, non-PEGylated and PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs) loaded with either ascorbic acid (AA), oxaliplatin (OX), or dual-loaded with AA-OX were fabricated using the ionotropic gelation method. The hydrodynamic diameters of the fabricated AA/CS NPs, OX/CS NPs, and AA-OX/CS NPs were 157.20 ± 2.40, 188.10 ± 9.70, and 261.10 ± 9.19 nm, respectively. While the hydrodynamic diameters of the designed AA/PEG-CS NPs, OX/PEG-CS NPs, and AA-OX/PEG-CS NPs were 152.20 ± 2.40, 156.60 ± 4.82, and 176.00 ± 4.21 nm, respectively. The ζ-potential of the prepared nanoparticles demonstrated high positive surface charges of +22.02 ± 1.50, +22.58 ± 1.85 and +40.4 ± 2.71 mV for AA/CS NPs, OX/CS NPs, and AA-OX/CS NPs, respectively. The ζ-potential of the PEGylated CS NPs was reduced owing to the shielding of the positive charges by the PEG chains. Additionally, all the prepared nanoparticles exhibited high entrapment efficiencies (EE%) and spherical-shaped morphology. The chemical features of the prepared nanoparticles were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Release studies showed the capability of the prepared non-PEGylated and PEGylated chitosan NPs to release their cargo in the acidic environment of cancer tissue (pH 5.5). Furthermore, the AA/CS NPs, AA/PEG-CS NPs, OX/CS NPs, OX/PEG-CS NPs, AA-OX/CS NPs and AA-OX/PEG-CS NPs exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities against breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cells with IC50 values of 44.87 ± 11.49, 23.3 ± 3.73, 23.88 ± 6.29, 17.98 ± 3.99, 18.69 ± 2.22, and 7.5 ± 0.69 µg/mL, respectively; as compared to free AA and OX (IC50 of 150.80 ± 26.50 and 147.70 ± 63.91 µg/mL, respectively). Additionally, treatment of MCF-7 cells with IC50 concentrations of AA, AA/CS NPs, AA/PEG-CS NPs, OX, OX/CS NPs, OX/PEG-CS NPs, AA-OX/CS NPs or AA-OX/PEG-CS NPs increased the percentages of early apoptotic cells to 5.28%, 9.53%, 11.20%, 5.27%, 13.80%, 8.43%, 2.32%, and 10.10%, respectively, and increased the percentages of late apoptotic cells to 0.98%, 0.37%, 2.41%, 2.06%, 0.97%, 9.66%, 56%, and 81.50%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that PEGylation enhances the apoptotic effect of AA and OX alone, in addition to potentiating the apoptotic effect of AA and OX when combined on MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles encapsulating AA, OX, or AA and OX represent an effective formula for induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.
(2022). PEGylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Encapsulating Ascorbic Acid and Oxaliplatin Exhibit Dramatic Apoptotic Effects against Breast Cancer Cells. 14(2), 1–18.
Fahmy, Sherif Ashraf, et al.
"PEGylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Encapsulating Ascorbic Acid and Oxaliplatin Exhibit Dramatic Apoptotic Effects against Breast Cancer Cells." vol. 14,no. 2, 2022, pp. 1–18.