In-kitchen aerosol exposure in twelve cities across the globe

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Construction Engineering Department

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Prashant Kumar, Sarkawt Hama, Rana Alaa Abbass, Thiago Nogueira, Veronika S. Brand, Huai-Wen Wu, Francis Olawale Abuluda, Adedeji A. Adelodun, Partibha Anand, Maria de Fatima Andrade, William Apondo, Araya Asfaw, Kosar Hama Aziz, Shi-Jie Cao, Ahmed El-Gendy, Gopika Indu, Anderson Gwanyebit Kehbila, Matthias Ketzel, Mukesh Khare, Sri Harsha Kota, Tesfaye Mamo, Steve Manyozo, Jenny Martinez, Aonghus McNabola, Lidia Morawska, Fryad Mustafa, Adamson S. Muula, Samiha Nahian, Adelaide Cassia Nardocci, William Nelso, Aiwerasia V. Ngowi, George Njoroge, Yris Olaya, Khalid Omer, Philip Osano, Md Riad Sarkar Pavel, Abdus Salam, Erik Luan Costa Santos, Cynthia Sitati, S.M. Shiva Nagendra

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Research Article

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Environment International

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Poor ventilation and polluting cooking fuels in low-income homes cause high exposure, yet relevant global studies are limited. We assessed exposure to in-kitchen particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) employing similar instrumentation in 60 low-income homes across 12 cities: Dhaka (Bangladesh); Chennai (India); Nanjing (China); Medellín (Colombia); São Paulo (Brazil); Cairo (Egypt); Sulaymaniyah (Iraq); Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Akure (Nigeria); Blantyre (Malawi); Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania) and Nairobi (Kenya). Exposure profiles of kitchen occupants showed that fuel, kitchen volume, cooking type and ventilation were the most prominent factors affecting in-kitchen exposure. Different cuisines resulted in varying cooking durations and disproportional exposures. Occupants in Dhaka, Nanjing, Dar-es-Salaam and Nairobi spent > 40% of their cooking time frying (the highest particle emitting cooking activity) compared with ∼ 68% of time spent boiling/stewing in Cairo, Sulaymaniyah and Akure. The highest average PM2.5 (PM10) concentrations were in Dhaka 185 ± 48 (220 ± 58) μg m−3 owing to small kitchen volume, extensive frying and prolonged cooking compared with the lowest in Medellín 10 ± 3 (14 ± 2) μg m−3. Dual ventilation (mechanical and natural) in Chennai, Cairo and Sulaymaniyah reduced average in-kitchen PM2.5 and PM10 by 2.3- and 1.8-times compared with natural ventilation (open doors) in Addis Ababa, Dar-es-Salam and Nairobi. Using charcoal during cooking (Addis Ababa, Blantyre and Nairobi) increased PM2.5 levels by 1.3- and 3.1-times compared with using natural gas (Nanjing, Medellin and Cairo) and LPG (Chennai, Sao Paulo and Sulaymaniyah), respectively. Smaller-volume kitchens (<15 m3; Dhaka and Nanjing) increased cooking exposure compared with their larger-volume counterparts (Medellin, Cairo and Sulaymaniyah). Potential exposure doses were highest for Asian, followed by African, Middle-eastern and South American homes. We recommend increased cooking exhaust extraction, cleaner fuels, awareness on improved cooking practices and minimising passive occupancy in kitchens to mitigate harmful cooking emissions.

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