Applying Box–Behnken Design for Formulation and Optimization of PLGA-Coffee Nanoparticles and Detecting Enhanced Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities

Author's Department

Chemistry Department

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Nouran S Sharaf, Amro Shetta, Jailan E Elhalawani, Wael Mamdouh

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Research Article

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In an attempt to prove biological activity enhancement upon particle size reduction to the nanoscale, coffee (Cf) was chosen to be formulated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) using the single emulsion-solvent evaporation (SE-SE) method via Box-Behnken Design (BBD) to study the impact of certain process and formulation parameters on the particle size and size homogeneity, surface stability and encapsulation efficiency (EE%). The coffee-loaded PLGA (PLGA-Cf) NPs were characterized by different methods to aid in selecting the optimum formulation conditions. The desirable physicochemical characteristics involved small particle sizes with an average of 318.60 ± 5.65 nm, uniformly distributed within a narrow range (PDI of 0.074 ± 0.015), with considerable stability (Zeta Potential of -20.50 ± 0.52 mV) and the highest EE% (85.92 ± 4.01%). The antioxidant and anticancer activities of plain PLGA NPs, pure Cf and the optimum PLGA-Cf NPs, were evaluated using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, respectively. As a result of nano-encapsulation, antioxidant activity was enhanced by 26.5%. Encapsulated Cf showed higher anticancer potency than pure Cf against different cancerous cell lines with an increase of 86.78%, 78.17%, 85.84% and 84.84% against MCF-7, A-549, HeLa and HepG-2, respectively. The in vitro release followed the Weibull release model with slow and biphasic release profile in both tested pH media, 7.4 and 5.5.

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