Outgoing and potential trends of composition, health benefits, juice production and waste management of the multi-faceted Grapefruit : A comprehensive review for maximizing its value

Second Author's Department

Chemistry Department

Document Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition

Publication Date





Grapefruit (GF) Macfad (F. Rutaceae) is one of the major citrus fruits that encompass a myriad of bioactive chemicals and most unique among citrus fruits. Nevertheless, no study has yet to assess comprehensively its multitudinous constituents, health benefits, and valuable waste products. Hereto, the present review provides an updated comprehensive review on the different aspects of GF, its juice production, waste valorization, enhancement of its byproducts quality, and compared to other citrus fruits. Grapefruit uniqueness among other citrus fruits stands from its unique taste, flavor, and underlying complex chemical composition. Despite limonene abundance in peel oil and grapefruit juice (GFJ) aroma, nootkatone and sulfur compounds are the key determinants of its flavor, whereas flavanones contribute to its bitter taste and in conjunction with limonoids. Different postharvest treatments and juice processing are reviewed and in context to its influence on final product quality and or biological effects. Flavanones, furanocoumarins, and limonoids appear as the most prominent in GF drug interactions affecting its metabolism and or excretion. Valorization of GF peel is overviewed for its utilization as biosrobent, its oil in aromatherapy, limonene as antimicrobial or in cosmetics, fruit pectin for bioethanol production, or as biosorbent, and peel phenolics biotransformation. The present review capitalizes on all of the aforementioned aspects in GF and further explore novel aspects of its juice quality presenting the full potential of this valued multi-faceted citrus fruit.

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