A Multifaceted Review of Nutraceutical Bioactives: Production, Extraction, and Analysis in Drugs and Biofluids

Second Author's Department

Chemistry Department

Document Type

Research Article

Publication Title

ACS omega

Publication Date





Jack (known as Tongkat Ali) is a popular traditional herbal medicine, native to southeast Asia, that is well-known for its aphrodisiac as well as several other effects. Mostly, the root extract of . is used as a folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, anxiety, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, and osteoporosis. These health effects led to the inclusion of . in dietary supplements, particularly for bodybuilding purposes. These effects are mediated by a myriad of bioactive compounds belonging to quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, tirucallane triterpenes, squalene derivatives, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a large portion of . root phytochemicals. Of these ingredients, eurycomanone, the major quassinoid in . extract, accounts to a large extent for its health effects. This review capitalizes on the novel trends toward the production of . bioactives using biotechnology and extraction optimization for best yields and recovery. Alongside, novel extraction methods, i.e., green techniques, of . bioactives are described. Further, an overview of the different analytical approaches for the quality control assessment of . plant material and nutraceuticals is presented alongside studies in body fluids to determine its pharmacokinetics and efficacy level. Such a compilation of analytical methods will help ensure safety and efficacy of that major drug.

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