Evaluating the Potential Anticancer Properties of Salvia triloba in Human-Osteosarcoma U2OS Cell Line and Ovarian Adenocarcinoma SKOV3 Cell Line
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Salvia triloba (S. triloba) is an herb inherently linked to traditional medicine systems in the Eastern Mediterranean region. There is minimal experimental evidence however, regarding the anticancer effects of S. triloba in both osteosarcoma and ovarian cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of crude (macerated) S. triloba ethanol and acetone leaf extracts on viability, migratory ability, and the expression of genes regulating these activities in U2OS and SKOV3 cells using MTT assay, scratch-wound healing/trans-well migration assay, and RT-qPCR respectively. MTT assay results indicated that the acetone extract significantly reduced both U2OS and SKOV3 cell viability with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 54.51 ± 1.10 µg/mL and 75.96 ± 1.0237 µg/mL respectively; these concentrations further displayed negligible hemolytic activity. The combination of acetone extract (19 µg/mL) and paclitaxel (0.787 µg/mL) displayed synergy and reduced SKOV3 cell viability by over 90%. Additionally, the trans-well migration assay illustrated that the acetone extract (IC50) inhibited both U2OS and SKOV3 cell migration by more than 50%. Moreover, S. triloba acetone extract significantly downregulated the steady-state mRNA expression of key genes involved in driving select cancer hallmarks. Four fractions were generated from the acetone extract by thin layer chromatography (TLC), and the obtained retention factors (Rf) (ranging from 0.2 to 0.8) suggested a mixture of high and moderately polar compounds whose bioactivities require further investigation. In addition, FTIR measurements of the extract revealed peaks corresponding to OH, aliphatic CH, and ester groups suggesting the presence of phenolic compounds, terpenes, and polysaccharides. Altogether, these results suggest that S. triloba possesses potential therapeutic compounds that inhibit cell proliferation and migration, and modulate several genes involved in osteosarcoma and ovarian carcinoma progression.
Saleh, N.A.M.; El-bary, R.B.E.-d.A.; Mpingirika, E.Z.; Essa, H.L.; El-Sayed, M.M.H.; Sherbetjian, M.S.; Elfandi, H.F.; Wahed, M.A.A.; Arafeh, R.; Amleh, A. Evaluating the Potential Anticancer Properties of Salvia triloba in Human-Osteosarcoma U2OS Cell Line and Ovarian Adenocarcinoma SKOV3 Cell Line. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 11545. https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211545