Reliability of toe-nail connections in a gable roof houses under uplift wind loads

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Mechanical Engineering Department

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Adnan Enajar, Ashraf Nassef , Ashraf El Damatty

Document Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Engineering Structures

Publication Date

Winter 1-1-2023




The latest devastating hurricanes have caused considerable damage to light frame wooden houses. The detachment of the roofs because of the high uplift wind loads is one of the typical damages. This detachment often occurs at the contact connections in between the roof trusses and the walls of the houses. For several decades, toe-nail connections, which are poor in uplift resistance, have been used in those contacts. The purpose of this paper is to develop an efficient numerical model for performing reliability assessment of wooden roofs under uplift wind loads taking into account the statistical variability in both the load–deflection curve of toe-nails and the uplift wind load. The model utilizes a three-dimensional semi-analytical solution previously developed to predict the behaviour and failure of wood roofs under spatially variable uplift loads. The random characteristics of the toe-nails were calculated based on experimental results found in the literature and were statistically simulated using a beta distribution. The randomness of the wind speed was evaluated using a normal distribution. A full-scale gable roof was considered as a case study to determine the probability of roof failure at different wind speeds, Monte Carlo simulations along with the semi-analytical model were used to obtain the fragility curve based on two different criteria. It was found that beyond a mean wind velocity of 32 m/s, the probability of roof failure increases rapidly.

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