ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ في ﺃعمال ﻛﺎﭬﺎﻓﻲ وداريل ﻭﺗﺴﻴﺮﻛﺎﺱ / Alexandria in Cavafy, Durrell, and Tsirkas
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Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics
[Among the several ways of looking at Alexandria, one is represented by Edmund Keeley's critical book, Cavafy's Alexandria, which condemns the city as "squalid". Another approach, even less generous and far less literal, is that of Lawrence Durrell, whose notions of the city's history, politics, linguistics, ethnography and topography are permeated with unconcealed ethnic and religious hostilities. These attitudes were certainly not shared by Constantine Cavafy, who is repeatedly appealed to by Durrell in the text as a kind of authority. Crucial in Cavafy's work is the acceptance of the ordinary mundane physical reality of the city, without which precisely those emotions would be absent that provide significance or meaning. The same fidelity to the world is at the center of Tsirkas' Drifting Cities. Both were writing for the kind of the reader who prefers to be told something based upon sensitive observation, rather than something merely imagined. ﻳﺄﺗﻲ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺇﺩﻣﻮﻧﺩ ﻛﻴﻠﻲ ﻟﻺﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻟﻠﻨﻈﺮ ﻟﺘﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ٬ ﻓﻔﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻱ ﺇﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ ﻛﺎﭬﺎﻓﻲ ﻧﺮﺍﻩ ﻳﺻﻒ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﺤﻼﻝ٠ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻗﻞ ﻛﺮﻣﺎﹰ ﻭﺃﻗﻞ ﺣَﺮْﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻜﺜﻴﺮ٬ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺗﺼﻮﺭ ﻟﻮﺭﺍﻧﺲ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻞ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﺭﺑﺎﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻤﺘﺰﺝ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻪ ﻋﻦ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻭﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﻐﻮﻳﺎﺗﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﺛﻨﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻃﻮﺑﻮﻏﺮﺍﻓﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺑﺨﻠﻔﻴﺘﻪ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﻗﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ٠ ﺃﻣﺎ ﻛﻮﻧﺴﺘﺎﻧﺘﻴﻦ ﻛﺎﭬﺎﻓﻲ٬ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺜﻴﺮﺍﹰ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺘﺪﻋﻴﻪ ﺩﺭﺍﻳﻞ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﺮﺟﻊ ﻣﻮﺛﻮﻕ ﺑﻪ٬ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ ﻟﻢ ﻳﺘﺒﻦ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ٠ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻛﺎﭬﺎﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﺑﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺩﻱ٬ ﻭﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺑﺪﻭﻧﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﺐ ﺣﺘﻤﺎﹰ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺎﻋﺮ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻤﻨﺢ ﺷﻌﺮﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ٠ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻮﻓﺎﺀ ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﻳﺘﻤﺜﻠﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺗﺴﻴﺮ ﻛﺎﺱ ﻣﺪﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻬﺐ ﺍﻟﺮﻳﺢ٠ ﻓﻜﻼ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﻦ ﻳﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﻳﻔﻀﻞ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺮﺃ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺘﻠﻘﻰ ﻣﺠﺮﺩ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﺧﻴﺎﻟﻴﺔ٠]
Al Nakkash, L.
(2006). ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ في ﺃعمال ﻛﺎﭬﺎﻓﻲ وداريل ﻭﺗﺴﻴﺮﻛﺎﺱ / Alexandria in Cavafy, Durrell, and Tsirkas. Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics, 8–25.
Rodenbeck, John, et al.
"ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻨﺪﺭﻳﺔ في ﺃعمال ﻛﺎﭬﺎﻓﻲ وداريل ﻭﺗﺴﻴﺮﻛﺎﺱ / Alexandria in Cavafy, Durrell, and Tsirkas." Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics, no. 26, 2006, pp. 8–25.