Reinforced Stereotypes: A Case Study on School Textbooks in Egypt

Author's Department

Public Policy & Administration Department

Document Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Journal of International Women's Studies

Publication Date



Gender equality in access to education may be increasing, yet several studies have indicated that school textbooks tend to be gender biased. These studies have also concluded that there is an associated influence of school textbooks on children’s beliefs and values within such textbooks, which has the capacity to reinforce stereotypical roles for women and place a glass ceiling on their empowerment. This paper focuses on the reinforced stereotypical gender roles depicted in primary school textbooks in Egypt, which subconsciously affects girls’ self-esteem and stifles their empowerment. It provides a mixed method of analysis of the Egyptian centralized state school textbooks for grades 1 to 3, focusing on the Arabic language. Regardless of the field of study, Arabic is an obligatory course at all schools in Egypt.

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