Comparative metabolites profiling of Caryota mitis & Caryota urens via UPLC/MS and isolation of two novel in silico chemopreventive flavonoids

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Uppsala Universitet

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Research Article

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Journal of Food Biochemistry

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Caryota mitis and Caryota urens (F. Arecaceae) are well reported in Ayurvedic medicine and involved in several edible food products. Herein, the first comparative profiling of their leaf and fruit metabolites of both species via HR-UPLC/PDA/ESI-MS and multivariate data analyses is presented. A total of 142 metabolites were detected with seven reported for the first time in F. Arecaceae and a novel O-caffeoylshikimic acid conjugate. Screening of plants' leaf crude extracts via in vitro DCPIP kinetic assay revealed the induction of phase II cytoprotective enzyme NQO1 by 4.5- to 5-fold versus control, suggestive of potential chemopreventive activity. Two novel sulfated flavonols that is quercetin-3-O-sulfate-4′-O-rhamnosyl (1→6)-β-d-glucoside (F1) and kaempferol-3-O-sulfate-4′-O-rhamnosyl(1→6)-β-d-glucoside (F3) in addition to another five known flavonoids were isolated from C. mitis ethanol extract and identified via MS and NMR spectroscopic techniques. Among isolated compounds, F1 and F3 exhibited the highest docking score as KEAP-1 inhibitors and Nrf2 activators posing them as potential chemopreventive drug leads. Practical applications: The study extends the usages of this edible less explored Caryota species to a potential cancer chemopreventive action. Guided by the extensive chemical information presented herein, additional uses could be suggested for these plants with 142 identified metabolites including androst-en-diol that has aphrodisiac and muscle building effects. The presented multivariate data analyses could aid phytochemists in plants classification and mapping (chemotaxonomy) since several metabolites are reported herein for the first time either in family or genus.

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