Gene mutations of the three ectodysplasin pathway key players (EDA, EDAR, and EDARADD) account for more than 60% of Egyptian ectodermal dysplasia: A report of seven novel mutations

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Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a diverse group of genetic disorders caused by congenital defects of two or more ectodermal-derived body structures, namely, hair, teeth, nails, and some glands, e.g., sweat glands. Molecular pathogenesis of ED involves mutations of genes encoding key proteins of major developmental pathways, including ectodysplasin (EDA) and wingless-type (WNT) pathways. The most common ED phenotype is hypohidrotic/anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) featuring hypotrichosis, hypohidrosis/anhidrosis, and hypodontia. Molecular diagnosis is fundamental for disease management and emerging treatments. We used targeted next generation sequencing to study EDA, EDAR, EDARADD, and WNT10A genes in 45 Egyptian ED patients with or without hypohidrosis. We present genotype and phenotype data of 28 molecularly-characterized patients demonstrating genetic heterogeneity, variable expressivity, and intrafamilial phenotypic variability. Thirteen mutations were reported, including four novel EDA mutations, two novel EDARADD, and one novel EDAR mutations. Identified mutations congregated in exons encoding key functional domains. EDA is the most common gene contributing to 85% of the identified Egyptian ED genetic spectrum, followed by EDARADD (10%) and EDAR (5%). Our cohort represents the first and largest cohort from North Africa where more than 60% of ED patients were identified emphasizing the need for exome sequencing to explore unidentified cases.

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