Title

Propolis nanoparticles relieved the impacts of glyphosate-induced oxidative stress and immunosuppression in Nile tilapia

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https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-17201-2

Document Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

Publication Date

1-1-2021

doi

10.1007/s11356-021-17201-2

Abstract

The risk of the waterborne toxicity caused by herbicides threatens the aquatic environment. In this study, propolis nanoparticles were shown to relieve the impacts of glyphosate-induced oxidative stress and immunosuppression in Nile tilapia. The control group was fed a basal diet and maintained in a glyphosate-free water (control). Simultaneously, the other three groups were exposed to sublethal concentrations of glyphosate (0.6 mg/L) and fed diets containing 0 and 10 g propolis and 10 g propolis nanoparticles for 4 weeks. Nile tilapia exposed to glyphosate for 2 and 4 weeks exhibited a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine values compared to the control. After 2 and 4 weeks, fish exposed to glyphosate who were not fed propolis and propolis nanoparticles showed a significant reduction in total protein, albumin, and globulin levels, lysozyme activity, and total immunoglobulin levels. Nile tilapia exposed to glyphosate displayed a significant increase in blood glucose and cortisol concentrations after 2 and 4 weeks. Furthermore, liver and gill tissues from fish exposed to glyphosate exhibited a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Conversely, a statistically significant decrease was observed in the liver and gill MDA levels and AChE activity of the groups treated with propolis and propolis nanoparticles compared to the groups exposed to glyphosate and fed the basal diet. Fish exposed to glyphosate for 2 and 4 weeks showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in hepatic and gill glutathione (GSH) concentration and white blood cell and red blood cell counts compared to the control group. Meanwhile, these parameters in groups fed propolis and propolis nanoparticles were markedly ameliorated compared to exposed fish fed the basal diet. Dietary supplementation of propolis nanoparticles is superior to supplementation of propolis in the normal form for protecting Nile tilapia from glyphosate toxicity.

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