Biosensing approaches to detect potential milk contaminants: a comprehensive review

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Chemistry Department

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Mohamed A. Farag; Marie Tanios; Sara AlKarimy; Hany Ibrahim; Hania A. Guirguis

Document Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment

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Accidentally present contaminants or intentionally added adulterants in milk lead potentially to delivering not only unhealthy but seriously hazardous products. Thorough, fast and sensitive analytical tools are essential for monitoring of milk quality, and for screening of any objectionable contaminants. Biosensors represent an innovative, time-efficient and on-site solution to assess milk quality in addition to their specificity towards target analytes alongside high accuracy within such complex matrices. Most biosensors use antibodies, aptamers or enzymes as the bio-receptor and rely on optical, electrochemical or thermometric transduction to generate a signal. The simplest biosensors appear to be those based on a colorimetric assay, being simple and having a signal that can be detected visually. Electrochemical sensors are more specific and sensitive, though with more complicated designs, whereas thermometric sensors have not been thoroughly explored concerning biosensing contaminants in milk. This review discusses recent advances in the field of biosensors and analyzes the various methods of bio-recognition and transduction with regard to their advantages, limitations, and application to milk products. Additionally, challenges facing further development of these strategies to fulfil the increasing demand for fast and on-line milk quality control are also presented.

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