Gut brain axis: an insight into microbiota role in Parkinson's disease

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Institute of Global Health & Human Ecology

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Sara Ayman Moustafa; Shrouk Mohamed; Abdelhameed Dawood; Jihan Azar; Ekramy Elmorsy; Noura A. Rizk; Mohamed Salama

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Research Article

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Metabolic brain disease

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Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common progressive neurodegenerative diseases. It is characterized neuropathologically by the presence of alpha-synuclein containing Lewy Bodies in the substantia nigra of the brain with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. The presence of alpha-synuclein aggregates in the substantia nigra and the enteric nervous system (ENS) drew attention to the possibility of a correlation between the gut microbiota and Parkinson's disease. The gut-brain axis is a two-way communication system, which explains how through the vagus nerve, the gut microbiota can affect the central nervous system (CNS), including brain functions related to the ENS, as well as how CNS can alter various gut secretions and immune responses. As a result, this dysbiosis or alteration in gut microbiota can be an early sign of PD with reported changes in short chain fatty acids, bile acids, and lipids. This gave rise to the use of probiotics and faecal microbiota transplantation as alternative approaches to improve the symptoms of patients with PD. The aim of this review is to discuss investigations that have been done to explore the gastrointestinal involvement in Parkinson's disease, the effect of dysbiosis, and potential therapeutic strategies for PD.

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