Lack of human security, a cause of irregular migration: the case of Egypt


The concept of human security was officially introduced for the first time by the 1994 UNDP Human Development Report. In that report, human security components are classified into seven categories: food security, health security, environmental security, personal security, community security, political security, and economic security. Unlike the conventional definition given to security, as one focusing on military issues and on borders’ protection, human security was put forth as a security centered and focusing on people and their protection. This thesis focuses on Egypt as a case study to try to link human security with irregular migration. It argues that the more people feel insecure, especially economically insecure; the more they will be tempted to migrate. As migration laws and borders’ control are stricter, since 9/11, people have no other option but to resort to illegal migration; which puts their lives at risk. Human insecurity is taken, in this thesis, as a main push factor of migration. In the case of Egypt, the main reason playing this role of push factor is the economic insecurity endured by people. Irregular migration becomes a solution to improve their living conditions. The thesis looks at some of the programs established in Egypt to reduce irregular migration and to provide people with more economic security so that they are not tempted to migrate. The Commission on Human Security and the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security –two international bodies responsible for the issue of human security– work is also looked at in an attempt to learn from their achievements but also from their failures.


School of Humanities and Social Sciences


Political Science Department

Degree Name

MA in Political Science

Date of Award


Online Submission Date


First Advisor

Korany, Bahgat

Committee Member 1

Tschirgi, Dan

Committee Member 2

El Sayyid, Mustapha

Document Type



132 p.


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