This case study describes and analyzes the failure of the orange exports in Egypt since 1884 until 1966/67. It also evaluates the recent growth in Egyptian orange exports from 1967/68 to 1970/71. Part I describes the Egyptian orange production, consumption and exports from 1884 to the pre­sent. It focuses on an exploratory study of 1966/67 orange export season, which provides an ideal example of the failure of orange exports in Egypt from 1884 until 1966/67. This Part formulates the problem as "The failure of oran­ge exports in Egypt from 1884 to 1966/67, and the possibility of promoting this activity". It also uncovers the two main shortcomings as being "poor quality and high costs."

Part II analyzes the problem. It goes beyond the failure and the unfavorable facts to discover the real causes for the main short comings. It sorts the causes according to their controllability. It derives long term objectives, from the uncontrollable factors, to be subject to governmental long term plans and policies. It also derives short term objectives from those factors that are subject to management control. Those short term objectives were integrated in one comprehensive objective to be achieved by El-Wadi Export Company, being the State company responsible for this activity. The new objective for El-Wadi Company as presented in this part is to be aggressive, customer oriented, and marketing management oriented. Part III presents the new marketing plan in developing marketing information, pricing, production, organization, distribution and promotion. policies adopted by El-Wadi Company from 1967 /68 until the present.

Part IV evaluates the recent achievement and summarizes the results as:

1- A fast expansion of Egypt's orange export..

2- A sharp decrease in costs.

3- A considerable increase in revenues

4- Quality improved and satisfied customers.

The study ends with the following new hypothesis:

"All fruit and vegetable exports will develop and increase only if their promotion is based on a total and aggressive customer oriented marketing plan supported by a comprehensive system of decision making".


Management Department

Degree Name

MS in Finance

Date of Award


Online Submission Date


First Advisor

[name not available]

Second Advisor

[name not available]

Third Advisor

[name not available]

Committee Member 1

[name not available]

Committee Member 2

[name not available]

Committee Member 3

[name not available]

Document Type



129 leaves

Library of Congress Subject Heading 1

Orange industry

Library of Congress Subject Heading 2

Foreign trade promotion


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Call Number

Thesis 1971/143



Included in

Economics Commons