This thesis. entitled'" Ali Pasha Mubarak's Philosophy of Education and Its Relationship to an Emergent Modern Bureaucracy was completed at the American University of Cairo by Mariam Shouman under supervision by Dr. Michael Reimer. The main focus of the work is an attempt to pinpoint ·Ali Mubarak's philosophy of education as presented in his own works. al-Khitat and 'Alam al-Din. These works have been examined and translated in some detail to reveal indications of this important figure's perception of the role education should play in individual lives as well as its importance to the bureaucracy at large. While these writings demand a critical eye to determine what is accurate and what is self-laudatory, the passages are interesting in and of themselves because they indicate the rhetoric of the moment. The historical moment which they describe is important because it represents an instance of transition, a pivotal point of change in which a new pedagogical system was formulated and introduced as the primary means of attaining a position in a new expanded bureaucracy. While the 19111-century, under the sway of Muhammad 'Ali was in fact a time of transition, the continuities with the past should not be overlooked. While the new educational system differed from the traditional kuttab and madrasa in terms of curriculum, nature of discipline, pedagogical methods, as well as the professions for which students were prepared for upon completion of study, it is important to remember that the new schools drew upon the old for students and consequently imbibed some of their methods. Memorization, which is often indicated as a feature of traditional education, remained a feature in the modern schools. The goal of moral socialization remained constant even though the pedagogical methods for achieving it changed.

An associated theme examined within the thesis is that of the formation of the modern bureaucracy in which students graduated from the modern schools were to serve. The thesis touches upon Muhammad 'Ali's military and associated support structure and focuses upon the role education played within a newly centralized bureaucracy.


School of Humanities and Social Sciences

Date of Award


Online Submission Date


First Advisor

Huda Lutfi

Committee Member 1

Huda Lutfi

Committee Member 2

Martina Rieker

Committee Member 3

Cynthia Nelson

Document Type



88 leaves

Library of Congress Subject Heading 1



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Call Number

Thesis 1999/51