This thesis presents proposed environmentally friendly construction materials by utilizing slags and dust generated from steel industry in Egypt. Electrical Arc Furnace (EAF) dust is suggested to be used as an alternative to the conventional pigments for mortars and as a chemical resistance agent too. While air-cooled Blast Furnace (BF) slag, Basic Oxygen-converter Furnace (BOF) slag, and EAF slag are proposed to replace fine minerals in preparing cement floor hardeners and screed mortars for new and existing concrete floors. Furthermore, all slag types are also proposed to replace coarse aggregates in producing cement masonry units and paving stone interlocks. The results of the experimental program to examine the effectiveness of the proposed utilization are presented and discussed. The effect of EAF dust on the mortar dry density, mechanical properties, curing stability, and chemical resistance was investigated. Floor hardener and screed mortar mixes with slag replacements of 3 3 %, 67%, and 100% were tested for abrasion resistance, compressive strength, and chemical resistance. Solid and hollow slag masonry units at 33%, 67%, and 100% slag replacement levels were examined for bulk density, water absorption, compressive strength, and flexural strength. Slag paving stone units at similar replacement levels to those of masonry were tested for bulk density, absorption, compressive strength, and abrasion resistance. Heavy metals content and water leaching tests were conducted for all waste materials under investigation and for mortar specimens containing waste to assess the likely health hazard of the proposed utilization. Test results revealed that EAF dust is a viable alternative to the conventional mortar pigments. Strength results of mortars with EAF dust were higher than those with the conventional pigment. EAF dust also improved the chemical resistance to alkaline media yet resulted in fair decrease in the resistance to acidic ones. All slag types showed higher abrasion and chemical resistance as floor hardeners and screed mortars than the reference mix. At 3-day age, all masomy unites made of slags fulfilled the ASTM strength requirement for nonloadbearing masonry. At replacement levels of 67% and higher, all slag types resulted in masonry units with strength values higher than the ASTM limit for loadbearing masonry at late ages. AH slag types resulted in paving stone units having higher compressive strength than the control mix and very low abrasion coefficients than the ASTM limit. The results of heavy metals content and leaching showed that all solid waste materials investigated can be safely used in the proposed field of application. Almost all heavy metals concentrations for the water leaching test were found to be lower than the world health organization guideline values for drinking water


School of Sciences and Engineering

Degree Name

Masters of Science in Environmental Engineering

Date of Award


Online Submission Date


First Advisor

Salah El Haggar

Committee Member 1

Samia Galal Saad

Committee Member 2

Omaima Ahmed Salah El Din

Committee Member 3

Safwan A. Khedr

Document Type



173 leaves

Library of Congress Subject Heading 1

Building, Iron and Steel

Library of Congress Subject Heading 2

Steel industry and trade


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Call Number

Thesis 1999/68



Included in

Engineering Commons