Volatile profiling in Rhus coriaria fruit (sumac) from three different geographical origins and upon roasting as analyzed via solid-phase microextraction

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Chemistry Department

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Mohamed A. Farag; Nesrin M. Fayek; Ibrahim Abou Reidah

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Research Article

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Rhus coriaria (sumac) is a fruit grown worldwide for its culinary use as a flavoring agent and for its health benefits. Despite several studies on R. coriaria non-volatile metabolites, much less is recognized concerning volatile composition within that genus. In an effort to expand on flavor profile sumac and its food products, we report on volatile profiling from three accessions of different origins including Palestine, Jordan and Egypt in addition to its cold tea and post roasting via headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Under optimized conditions, 74 volatile components were identified belonging to alcohols, aromatics, esters, ethers, furan/aldehyde, hydrocarbons, ketones, monoterpenes, oxides and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Major identified components included α-pinene, naphthalene and o-cymene in Palestinian, Jordanian and Egyptian sumac, respectively. Whereas sesquiterpenes amounted for the major volatile class in fresh R. coriaria at ca. 40–58%, furan/aldehydes were the predominant classes in roasted fruits (58%). Volatile abundance data was further subjected to multivariate data analyses revealing furfural and nonanal enrichment in roasted compared to fresh fruits and their cold tea preparation. Seeds exhibited no aroma components which justified their removal in R. coriaria prior to its use as a food flavor. Such knowledge is expected to be the key for understanding the olfactory and taste properties of R. coriaria and its several food products.

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