Dissecting coffee seeds metabolome in context of genotype, roasting degree, and blending in the Middle East using NMR and GC/MS techniques

Author's Department

Chemistry Department

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Ahmed Zayed, Amr Abdelwareth, Tarik A. Mohamed, Heba A. Fahmy, Andrea Porzel, Ludger A. Wessjohann, Mohamed A. Farag

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Research Article

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With a favored taste and various bioactivities, coffee has been consumed as a daily beverage worldwide. The current study presented a multi-faceted comparative metabolomics approach dissecting commercially available coffee products in the Middle East region for quality assessment and functional food purposes using NMR and GC/MS platforms. NMR metabolites fingerprinting led to identification of 18 metabolites and quantification (qNMR) of six prominent markers for standardization purposes. An increase of β-ethanolamine (MEA) reported for the first time, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural (5-HMF), concurrent with a reduction in chlorogenic acid, kahweol, and sucrose levels post roasting as revealed using multivariate data analyses (MVA). The diterpenes kahweol and cafestol were identified in green and roasted Coffea arabica, while 16-O-methyl cafestol in roasted C. robusta. Moreover, GC/MS identified a total of 143 metabolites belonging to 15 different chemical classes, with fructose found enriched in green C. robusta versus fatty acids abundance, i.e., palmitic and stearic acids in C. arabica confirming NMR results. These potential results aided to identify novel quality control attributes, i.e., ethanolamine, for coffee in the Middle East region and have yet to be confirmed in other coffee specimens.

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