ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻧﺘﺎﺯﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺛﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ: ﺇﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻧﻤﻮﺫﺟﺎً / Fantasia and Ethnic Responsibility in Autobiographical Writing: The Women Warrior


Marwa El Naggar



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Elnaggar, Marwa; ﺍﻟﻨﺠﺎﺭ, ﻣﺮﻭﺓ

Document Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics

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[ﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻹﺛﻨﻰ؟ ﻭﻫﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﺪ ﻗﻴﻮﺩ ﺃﺩﺑﻴﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﺘّﺎﺏ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻷﺻﻮﻝ ﺍﻹﺛﻨﻴﺔ؟ ﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﺛﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ، ﻭﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﻴﻦ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺧﺎﺹ، ﻣﺮﻛﺰﺓﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻜﺎﺗﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ ﻣﺎﻛﺴﻴﻦ ﻫﻮﻧﺞ ﻛﻴﻨﺠﺴﺘﻮﻥ ﺑﻌﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺇﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ. ﻓﻔﻲ ﺳﻴﺮﺗﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺗﻴﺔ، ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ ﻛﻴﻨﺠﺴﺘﻮﻥ ﺁﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻧﺘﺎﺯﻳﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺨﻴﺎﻝ ﻭﺗﻤﺰﺟﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻃﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻠﺔ. ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺮﻏﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻥ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻬﺎ ﺣﻈﻲ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻘﺒﺎﻝ ﺣﻔﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻭﺳﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺪﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ، ﻓﻘﺪ ﻫﺎﺟﻤﻬﺎ ﻧﻘﺎﺩ ﺻﻴﻨﻴﻮﻥ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﻮﻥ ﺑﺸﺮﺍﺳﺔ، ﻣﺘﻬﻤﻴﻦ ﺇﻳﺎﻫﺎ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ "ﺷﻮﻫﺖ" ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻃﻴﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻴﻨﻴﺔ، ﻭﺭﺿﺨﺖ ﻟﺨﻴﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﻷﺑﻴﺾ. ﻓﺎﻟﺨﻴﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﻷﺳﺎﻃﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﻣﻼﻥ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻃﻌﺎﻥ ﻭﻣﺘﺮﺍﺑﻄﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻣﺮﺃﺓ ﻣﺤﺎﺭﺑﺔ ﻭﻳﻠﻌﺒﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﹰ ﻣﻬﻤﺎﹰ ﻭﺣﻴﻮﻳﺎﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ. ﻭﺗﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻫﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﻴﻦ ﻭﺗﻘﺎﻃﻌﺎﺗﻬﻤﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺑﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ . This article explores the problems that face ethnic writers in general, and Chinese-American writers in particular, through an analysis of Maxine Hong Kingston’s autobiography, The Woman Warrior. The author shows how Kingston’s autobiography is a mixture of fantasy, imagination, Chinese legend, and family history. Though the book was widely acclaimed in critical circles in the US, some Chinese—American critics fiercely criticized Kingston’s work as an example of literature that caters to white American values and ‘deforms’ Chinese legends. The article explores the vital roles played by the imagination and legends in Kingston’s work, and the intersections between these two features and other stylistic aspects of the autobiography.]

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