ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻄﺎﻑ: ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻣﺴﺘﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﺑﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺤﻮﻟﺔ / The End of the Trail: Usurped Culture and Appropriated Poetics


Munir Akash



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Akash, Munir; ﺍﻟﻌﻜﺶ, ﻣﻨﻴﺮ

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Research Article

Publication Title

Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics

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[ﺑﺪﺀﺍﹰ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻬﺪ ﻛﻮﻟﻮﻣﺒﺲ، ﺗﻌﺮﺽ ﺳﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺍﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺷﻜﺎﻝ ﻋﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻣﻴﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻴﻴﻦ، ﻟﻜﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﻴﻦ ﻭﺣﺪﻫﻢ، ﻭﺍﻟﭙﻴﻮﺭﻳﺘﺎﻧﺰ (ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻄﻬﺮﻳﻦ) ﺑﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﺟﺎﺀﻭﺍ ﺑﻔﻜﺮﺓ ﻣﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﺗﺴﺘﻨﺴﺦ ﺭﺅﻳﺘﻬﻢ ﻹﺳﺮﺍﺋﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺨﻴﺔ: ﻓﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺃﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺮ، ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺒﺪﺍﻝ ﺷﻌﺐ ﺑﺸﻌﺐ. ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺪﻯﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﻤﺎﺋﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻴﺔ، ﺃﺑﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﺓ - ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﻌﺮﻑ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪﺓ - ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ١٨ﻣﻠﻴﻮﻥ "ﻫﻨﺪﻱ ﺃﺣﻤﺮ"، ﻭﻣﺤﻮﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺫﺍﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺧﻤﺲ ﻣﺌﺔ ﺃﻣﺔ ﻭﺷﻌﺐ ﻭﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ، ﻟﻜﻨﻬﻢ ﻟﻢ ﻳﻐﺐ ﻋﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﻬﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺣﺘﻼﻝ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺠﺴﺪﻳﺔ ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ، ﻭﺃﻧﻪ ﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ "ﻛﺴﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺮﻱ ﻟﻀﺤﺎﻳﺎﻫﻢ"، ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻟﻐﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﻭﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎﺗﻬﻢ ﻭﺗﺮﺍﺛﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﺣﻲ. ﺗﺴﻠﻂ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻀﻮﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻹﺑﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﺎ ﺭﺍﻓﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺒﺎﺣﺔ ﻭﺗﺰﻭﻳﺮ ﻷﺩﺏ ﺍﻟﻬﻨﻮﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺮ ﻭﺭﻭﺣﺎﻧﻴﺎﺗﻬﻢ . Starting with Columbus, the inhabitants of the "new world" were exposed to various modes of devastation by European conquerors. In particular, the Puritans came with a preconceived idea about America drawn from that of ancient Israel: the idea of occupying the land of others and exchanging one people with another. For the last four centuries, conquerors—in what is now the US—ethnically cleansed more than five hundred nations, communities, and tribes. They were aware that such destruction and genocide were not enough and that it was necessary to also break the victims by undoing their culture and spiritual legacy. This article throws light on how the culture of the natives was usurped and how their discourse was appropriated.]

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