Title

Are Children Morally Inferior to Adults? / ﻫﻞ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻴﺎً ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺷﺪﻳﻦ؟

Program

ALIF

Find in your Library

http://www.jstor.org/stable/30197976

All Authors

Whoolery, Matthew; ﻭﻭﻟﻴﺮﻱ, ﻣﺎﺛﻴﻮ

Document Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics

Publication Date

2007

Abstract

[This article suggests that while developmental theorists are in disagreement over many particulars about child development, one area of agreement is the moral inferiority of children. It examines the theories of Freud (psychoanalysis), Kohlberg (cognitive moral development), and Skinner (behaviorism). The article provides a brief overview of each theory, discusses the implications of its views of children, and addresses problems related to it. Each of the theorists mentioned explains moral development in a way that assumes children are incapable of acting morally, disallowing any possibility of true altruism or selfless action. ﺗﺸﻴﺮ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺭﻏﻢ ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮ ﺣﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻔﺎﺻﻴﻞ ﺗﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﻔﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ، ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎﹰ ﺗﺘﻔﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺩﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ٠ ﻭﻣﻦ ﺧﻼﻝ ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻭﻳﺪ ( ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻨﻔﺴﻲ )، ﻭﻛﻮﻟﺒﺮﺝ ( ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ )، ﻭﺳﻜﻴﻨﺮ ( ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻛﻴﺔ )، ﻳﻘﺪّﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻝ ﻋﺮﺿﺎ ﹰﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮﺍ ﹰﻟﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ، ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺸﺎﹰ ﺍﻷﻓﻜﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻀﻤﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺁﺭﺍﺋﻬﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ، ﻣﻊ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻧﻘﺎﺋﺾ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ٠ ﻭﻳﻮﺿّﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺐ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺗﻨﺎﻭﻝ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮﺭﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﻷﺨﻼﻗﻲ ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﺮﺽ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺪﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﺮﻑ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻲ، ﻧﺎﻓﻴﺔﹰ ﺃﻱ إﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻟﻺﻳﺜﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻧﻜﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﺬﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎﺗﻬﻢ٠]

First Page

114

Last Page

130

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