Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities

Author's Department

Construction Engineering Department

Find in your Library


Document Type

Research Article

Publication Title

Journal of Advanced Research

Publication Date





© 2013. Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1. h, 2. h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows.

First Page


Last Page


This document is currently not available here.