This research investigates the phenomenon of private tutoring in the lower primary stage in public schools in Egypt by examining the views and experiences of teachers and parents. The phenomenological qualitative approach is used in this study to present a rich and vivid portrait of the phenomenon that may contribute to a better understanding of its nature. The analysis depends on semi-structured interviews to serve the methodological essence of the qualitative approach. The outcomes of the research uncovered a rich perception of how the phenomenon of private tutoring at this early age occurs. The participants were 15 teachers and 20 parents in three different primary schools in Cairo. The teachers teach Arabic, Math, and English to grades 1, 2, and 3. They were different in gender and age. The parents were 18 females and 2 males, most of them were in their thirties of age. Findings revealed that parents realized the serious defect in the public schooling system in Egypt which made them lose trust in its significance and used private tutoring as an alternative. The main drive for being involved in this phenomenon was that they believe Education is a public good and the main path for their children to have a better future. Parents pay money for private tutors seeking foundation for their children. They think that if their children have competence in the basic language and numerical literacy at this early age, they would go through the next educational phases more smoothly. Teachers revealed their own reasons for being involved in the phenomenon. The financial factor appears to be the only drive. Private tutoring is the only way for fulfilling their financial needs as they are severely underpaid and the gap between their salaries and needs is huge. They sometimes expressed it plainly saying, we need money, other times they mixed it with anger and agony. There is a prevailing sense of despair and mistrust among public school teachers on increasing their salaries. They feel negligence, marginalization, and a lack of a serious intention to improve their financial status. Teachers see that they should be the Ministry of Education's priority to reform education in Egypt. They claim that the huge sums of money spent on developing new curriculums, assessment tools, and professional development programs are of no use as long as their salaries remain the same and their voices are unheard. Keywords: Private tutoring, education in Egypt, education reform in Egypt, foundation, financial drive, social justice.
International & Comparative Education Department
MA in International & Comparative Education
Date of Award
Online Submission Date
Committee Member 1
Bekele, Teklu Abate
Committee Member 2
Karkouti, Ibrahim M.
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(2020).Students' participation in private tutoring activities in Egypt in Egyptian lower primary schools: A qualitative investigation [Master’s thesis, the American University in Cairo]. AUC Knowledge Fountain.
Kabadaya, Mohamed Faiz Salaheldin. Students' participation in private tutoring activities in Egypt in Egyptian lower primary schools: A qualitative investigation. 2020. American University in Cairo, Master's thesis. AUC Knowledge Fountain.