Bacterial infection is one of the leading causes of death world-wide. Antibiotics have always been the first choice to be used against bacterial infections especially in post-surgery, diabetes mellitus due to their lack of immunity and in organ transplantation as well. On the other side the medical antibiotics have a major problem which is the resistance; meaning that after sometime the body begins to resist them and they became with no action on bacteria. That is why it is a global trend now to shift back to the natural resources from plant origin which exhibit potent antibacterial action. As an example is the date pit Phoenix dactylifera L. (Ajwah and Black date) which was proven to have many medical uses; antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-diabetes mellitus type 2, reduces obesity and hypercholesterolemia, protection against coronary heart diseases. This study is focused on using Black and Ajwah date pit and fruit, black date fruit to form nano formulation that are expected to have unique antioxidant and antibacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge No previous work was done to formulate a nano particle out of the pit. Date pit extract was prepared as aqueous and/or alcoholic. The chitosan nanoparticle was formulated to encapsulate the date pit extract inside it by the help of the sodium tri-poly phosphate (TPP) linker to enhance coiling and encapsulation by applying certain stirring criteria including the time, speed and temperature of stirring, centrifugation and sonication. Those separated nanoparticles will be measured to guarantee their size and potential. Spectroscopic and physicochemical assessments were done using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Transmittance Electron microscopy (TEM) to guarantee their homogenous spherical shape and size. Then measurements were done by Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), Infra-red spectrophotometry (IR). They proved that AS OD NPs were of hydrodymanic size 152.3-254.93 ±60 nm and TEM size of 1.01-2.05 nm, poly dispersion index of 0.39±0.08 and potential of 32.49-35.21±0.4. the NPs encapsulation AS extract in ratio of chitosan : ASOD 1:7 (w/w) had encapsulation efficiency of 70.37% and loading capacity of 61%. Release rate of those NPs was 68.2%±0.04 at 48 hrs. They showed enhanced antioxidant and antibacterial actions where the NPS were 1.2 fold more antioxidant than the plant extract and 100 fold more antibacterial than the plant extract


Nanotechnology Program

Degree Name

MS in Nanotechnology

Graduation Date


Submission Date

January 2019

First Advisor

mamdouh, wael ahmed

Committee Member 1

mamdouh, wael ahmed

Committee Member 2

tallima, hatem


186 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


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Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item


First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisor, Dr. Wael Mamdouh, for giving me the opportunity to work under his supervision and also for his valuable guidance and continuous support and encouragement throughout this research work. He provided me with unlimited support and gave me his precious time and advice whenever I needed it. I am also thankful to all my professors at AUC chemistry department whom I have learnt a lot from throughout the course of my studies. I also feel grateful to every one of my colleagues in my research group for their support, help and the time I spent with them, Amr Shetta, Khadija Sadek, Omar Hamed, Omar Zidan, Mohga Essam, Ahmed Emad eldin, James Kegere, Sara Oamr and Hind Amr Special thanks to the researchers and colleagues here at AUC who participated in teaching me some research skills and provided me with continuous guidance during my work; for their care and guidance during my research work, Rami Wasfi and Eng. Ahmed Nour for helping me in the SEM imaging, Mr. Mahmoud AbdelMoez and Ahmed Omaia for the FTIR experiments, Mr Emad Rafaat for the XRD experiments. I would like also to extend my deep and sincere thanks to my parents, Eng. Essam Badawi Marzouk and Dr. Fawkia Saad Mohammed my younger brother, Eng. Mohammed Essam Badawi and sister, Nerveen Essam Badawi without their continuous care and support in my life I couldn’t have achieved this study. I thank God for having such caring parents who are the beam of my passion to science since I was young. I will never forget their guidance and valuable discussions concerning my research especially my father and my kind mother. I would like to thank my small kids, Jaida Ellaithy and Selim Ellaithy as well since they bore my stress time and leaving them for long periods. Finally, I would like to express my endless thanks to my friends at AUC I would like to acknowledge my family for their support; without them in my life I couldn’t have achieved this study. I would like to acknowledge my father, for his continual support and his full presence. He has been great role model for me and he will always be my hero. Also, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my mother, whom her prayers have been always with me and always being with me to face the difficulties through this study. I would also like to thank my dear brother and sister for their love, care and encouragement. I wish to express my heartfelt thanks to my close friend Dr. Khadija Sadek my lovely sister, for her care, support and help with my kids whom her friendship have played crucial role in this research and my life; for her advice, warm support, and strength throughout the Masters; for her care and unforgettable help throughout my research work. Last, but by no means least, I thank God.