Maha Sherra


This study analyzed how charity organizations in Egypt utilize the use of framing, appeals, and strategies in their TV advertisements. A content analysis was conducted to understand the utilization of message framing; image valence/vividness; temporal framing; donations reframing; victim message strategy; source types; appeal types and execution framework; to enhance our understanding of the charity organizations' advertisement landscape in Egypt. The results indicate that framing is not a commonly used strategy by charity advertisers in Egypt, and the prevalent type of message framing in charity advertisements' is the gain frame, the most used temporal framing strategy is the long temporal framing, and the most used donation reframing strategy is the daily donation reframing. The results also indicate that the use of a negative image/story in their communication is very minimal compared to the prevalent use of a positive image/story. Regarding the victim message strategy, most of the advertisements included an unidentified group of three or more victims, and the most depicted victims are sick/ill children. The typical persons type of spokespersons is the most prevalent type followed by the use of celebrities. Finally, the altruistic appeal is most commonly used advertisement appeal, and the findings showed that charity advertisers rely on positive appeal characteristics and emotional appeal types rather than negative appeal characteristics and rational appeal types. This study also analyzed the congruency between message framing, image/story vividness, and advertisement appeal characteristics. The results revealed minimal congruency between message framing and image/story vividness, although showed congruency between the gain framed message and the positive appeal characteristic, while no congruency between the loss framed message and the negative appeal characteristic. The results also showed congruency between the positive and negative image/story vividness and the advertisement appeal characteristic, but minimal congruency between the neutral image/story vividness and the advertisement appeal characteristic. Finally, this study analyzed the spokespersons' gender, age group, and religion to identify the target groups of these advertisements, and to identify the used appeals to reach different target groups. The results showed that adult males are the most depicted in charity advertisements. Moreover, religious identification was not very common in charity advertisements which shows that charity advertisements target both Muslim and Christian groups, although during the coding process it was obvious that religious identification was associated with the nature of the advertised program or service. The results also showed that males were more depicted in advertisements with altruistic appeal, and adults were more depicted in guilt appeal and motivational appeal advertisements.


Journalism & Mass Communication Department

Degree Name

MA in Journalism & Mass Communication

Graduation Date


Submission Date

May 2017

First Advisor

Ismail, Amani

Committee Member 1

Hegazy, Ibrahim

Committee Member 2

Al-Mutafy, Marwa


152 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


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Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item


I would like to express my sincere appreciation and gratefulness to Dr. Amani Ismail for her support, enthusiasm, patience, and above all guidance throughout my thesis writing. There are no words to express how thankful I was that you agreed to supervise my thesis, and that without your supervision, encouragement, and your prompt feedbacks this paper would have never been in its best form as it is now. I would like to thank my mother Mrs. Naglaa Maarouf, and my father Mr. Ashraf Sherra for their support throughout my life and I wouldn’t have accomplished anything in my life if it wasn’t for them. I would like to thank my grandmother Mrs. Nawal Abdo Youssef for all her support and prayers that motivated me to finish my thesis and accomplish my dreams. To my brother and my best friend Mahmoud Sherra thank you for being in my life and for supporting me since I started the journey of life. Last but not least, I would like to thank my husband, my companion, and the love of my life Rami El Nozahi for baring with me since I started my Master’s, and for his tolerance, support, patience, understanding, and motivation that he has given me in the past few years. I also would like to acknowledge all my friends and colleagues for their help, and support throughout my thesis writing. Special thanks To Youmna El Sherbiny for helping me in the inter-coding, and to Mohamed Gameel for his continuous support and help throughout the thesis. I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Moez El Shohdi the CEO of the Egyptian Food Bank who is the reason I’m here today finishing my Master’s degree, if it wasn’t for his recommendation to apply for the Youssef Jameel Fellowship I wouldn’t have accomplished the dream of pursuing my Master’s degree. I also would like to thank my manager and my sister Mrs. Agharid Amin the Fundraising and Marketing Director of the Egyptian Food Bank for her support, motivation, and understanding throughout the past few years. I would like to thank all the professors who I was honored to be one of their students at the AUC, Dr. Amani Ismail, Dr. Rasha Abdulla, Dr. Naila Hamdy, Dr. Hussein Amin, Dr. Ibrahim Hegazy, and Dr. Mervat Abou Oaf. I would like to thank the readers of my thesis for their time and effort, Dr. Ibrahim Hegazy and Dr. Marwa Al-Mutafy. Last but not least, I would like to express my gratitude and thankfulness for the Youssef Jameel Fellowship sponsor and team who granted me my life time opportunity and allowed to me to achieve my dream of pursuing a Master’s Degree in Journalism and Mass Communication.