This research aimed primarily to understand the governance mechanism adopted for improving the public awareness on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) as the first goal of the Egyptian National Action Plan (NAP) for curbing AMR. The secondary purpose was to assess the public awareness, and to identify areas for improvement on raising awareness on AMR. A mixed approach was adopted; firstly, eight in-depth interviews with different stakeholders` representatives involved in the NAP development were held to understand the governance of the NAP. Secondly, a public awareness survey was conducted on 565 respondents to assess their knowledge and awareness on AMR and antibiotic use. The NAP policy design was well developed It involved all concerned stakeholders, and identified their roles and responsibilities; however, it lacked any reporting mechanism, and it was not legally bound. The Analysis revealed some isomorphic mimicry behavior in the NAP implementation; meaning there is a clear disconnect between what is stated in the plan and what gets to be implemented on the ground. Despite integrating all One Health sectors in development, only the Human sector did some independent activities for raising public awareness. Other sectors did not show any activities, except for educating veterinary students on AMR in some universities. On the other hand, the survey respondents were partially aware of the AMR, and they expected more efforts and communications from the government on the AMR. In conclusion, the research identified areas for improvement of the NAP`s goal to improve public awareness on AMR such as binding the NAP legally, setting a transparent system for implementation, harmonizing the One Health activities, creating a benchmarking environment for progress, defining the funding resources conspicuously. Finally, increasing the media messages on AMR and proper antibiotic use via social media, local TV, and local radio channels should be considered.


School of Global Affairs and Public Policy


Public Policy & Administration Department

Degree Name

MA in Public Administration

Graduation Date

Winter 1-31-2023

Submission Date


First Advisor

Dr. Shahjahan Bhuiyan

Committee Member 1

Dr. Laila El-Baradei

Committee Member 2

Dr. Hassan Azzazy


103 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Approval has been obtained for this item