This thesis presents a study for a wireless scheme for the Johns Hopkins modular prosthetic limb (MPL) as well as a demonstration for a novel fault tolerant scheme to further improve the arm’s reliability. Currently, the innovative prosthetic limbs that depend on Network Control Systems are wired devices which have two main disadvantages; the wear and tear issue as well as the mobility limitation problem. Hence, the same function can be done by replacing the wired models by Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) in order to avoid the wear and tear and mobility issues. Furthermore, the prosthetic limbs are life-saving and real time medical devices which demand high reliability as failure may lead to harsh consequences. The reputable Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL) that is developed by Johns Hopkins applied physics laboratory is revisited in this thesis. Using RIVERBED, the wireless scheme of the Johns Hopkins arm is studied as well as a fault-tolerant model for the same arm. All scenarios undergo interference analysis and a 95% confidence analysis. The simulation results have demonstrated that the end-to-end delays are below the system’s deadlines and there is zero packet loss in all scenarios; thus, the system requirements are satisfied. Further, the reliability of the system was calculated by modelling several scenarios using SHARPE. It has been proven that a system that uses a supervisor with lower specifications will have a very close reliability values to the system that uses very powerful supervisor if it was repaired after the failure of the third controller. Finally, it was proved that the motor redundancy has significantly enhanced the reliability.


School of Sciences and Engineering


Electronics & Communications Engineering Department

Degree Name

MS in Mechanical Engineering

Graduation Date


Submission Date

May 2020

First Advisor

Amer, Hassanein

Committee Member 1

Daoud, Ramez

Committee Member 2

Ismail, Yehia

Committee Member 3

Mostafa, El Sayed


90 p.

Document Type

Master's Thesis


The author retains all rights with regard to copyright. The author certifies that written permission from the owner(s) of third-party copyrighted matter included in the thesis, dissertation, paper, or record of study has been obtained. The author further certifies that IRB approval has been obtained for this thesis, or that IRB approval is not necessary for this thesis. Insofar as this thesis, dissertation, paper, or record of study is an educational record as defined in the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) (20 USC 1232g), the author has granted consent to disclosure of it to anyone who requests a copy. The author has granted the American University in Cairo or its agents a non-exclusive license to archive this thesis, dissertation, paper, or record of study, and to make it accessible, in whole or in part, in all forms of media, now or hereafter known.

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Not necessary for this item


At the beginning, I would like to thank my supervisors: Prof. Hassanein Amer and Dr. Ramez Daoud for their extraordinary support during my degree and throughout the courses and the thesis. Their endless support cannot be simply described in words. And, I would like to acknowledge my appreciation for: Prof. Hany ElSayed, Prof. Moustafa Arafa, Dr. Ihab Adly, Eng. Gehad Alkady, Eng. Malak El-Salamouny and Eng. Manar Negm, for supporting me with their knowledge. And, thanks to Eng. Mohamed Salem, Eng. Mohamed Moustafa and Eng. Roshdi for facilitating my lab work by providing IT support. Also, I would really like to thank my family and friends for the incredible emotional support they have been giving me which I really needed and for baring me during the whole degree and accepting that I was not available most of the time.

Available for download on Tuesday, September 19, 2023