Nervous system damage comprises a large proportion of diseases worldwide. It is also the most difficult to diagnose. Biomarkers for nervous system damage are needed in order to diagnose these diseases early enough to allow for intervention. In this study, we recruited patients from two Egyptian hospitals with MCI, ET and NMS and health references. Serum autoantibody levels against neural proteins and heavy metals were analyzed and compared. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against neurofilament H (NFH), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) and alpha synuclein (a-SYN) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody against neurofilament light (NFL) were among the most significant promising biomarkers of nervous system damage. Among the heavy metals, Zn and Pb were the most significant showing an association with neurotoxicity and had a positive correlation with the aforementioned autoantibodies. To conclude, this is a case-control study of 94 patients to determine general biomarkers of nervous system damage. This study gives us a new insight about the pathogenesis of these diseases and provides a starting point for more research in this area of biomarkers research in neurodegenerative diseases.


School of Sciences and Engineering


Institute of Global Health & Human Ecology

Degree Name

MA in Global Public Health

Graduation Date

Summer 5-12-2022

Submission Date


First Advisor

Hassan Elfawal

Second Advisor

Mohamed Salama

Committee Member 1

Duaa Dakhlallah

Committee Member 2

Shaimaa El-Jaafary


138 leaves

Document Type

Master's Thesis

Institutional Review Board (IRB) Approval

Approval has been obtained for this item