With the huge advancements in miniature sensors, actuators and processors depending mainly on the Micro and Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS/NEMS), many researches are now focusing on developing miniature flying vehicles to be used in both research and commercial applications. This thesis work presents a detailed mathematical model for a Vertical Takeo ff and Landing (VTOL) type Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) known as the quadrotor. The nonlinear dynamic model of the quadrotor is formulated using the Newton-Euler method, the formulated model is detailed including aerodynamic effects and rotor dynamics that are omitted in many literature. The motion of the quadrotor can be divided into two subsystems; a rotational subsystem (attitude and heading) and a translational subsystem (altitude and x and y motion). Although the quadrotor is a 6 DOF underactuated system, the derived rotational subsystem is fully actuated, while the translational subsystem is underactuated. The derivation of the mathematical model is followed by the development of four control approaches to control the altitude, attitude, heading and position of the quadrotor in space. The fi rst approach is based on the linear Proportional-Derivative-Integral (PID) controller. The second control approach is based on the nonlinear Sliding Mode Controller (SMC). The third developed controller is a nonlinear Backstepping controller while the fourth is a Gain Scheduling based PID controller. The parameters and gains of the forementioned controllers were tuned using Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique to improve the systems dynamic response. Simulation based experiments were conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of the four developed control techniques in terms of dynamic performance, stability and the effect of possible disturbances.
Robotics, Control & Smart Systems Program
MS in Robotics, Control and Smart Systems
Date of Award
Online Submission Date
Habib, Maki K.
Committee Member 1
Abdelaal, Wahied Gharieb Ali
Committee Member 2
Saad, Mohamed Shawky
Library of Congress Subject Heading 1
Library of Congress Subject Heading 2
Avrocar (VTOL airplane)
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(2014).Dynamic modeling and control of a Quadrotor using linear and nonlinear approaches [Master’s thesis, the American University in Cairo]. AUC Knowledge Fountain.
Elkholy, Heba talla Mohamed Nabil. Dynamic modeling and control of a Quadrotor using linear and nonlinear approaches. 2014. American University in Cairo, Master's thesis. AUC Knowledge Fountain.